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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants

From: Functional impairment among people diagnosed with depression in primary healthcare in rural Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study

Characteristics PHC diagnosed cases (N = 92) Non-diagnosed controls (N = 39) Community controls (N = 197)
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Sex
  Female 66 (71.7) 27 (69.2) 42 (21.3)
  Male 26 (28.3) 12 (30.8) 155 (78.7)
 Age in years
  Mean (SD) 38.1 (14.1) 39.6 (15.8) 48.2 (13.4)
 Marital status
  Never married 17 (18.5) 7 (17.9) 2 (1.0)
  Currently married 60 (65.2) 25 (64.1) 162 (82.7)
  Formerly married 15 (16.3) 7 (17.9) 32 (16.3)
 Residence
  Rural 70 (76.1) 32 (82.1) 154 (79.8)
  Urban 22 (23.9) 7 (17.9) 39 (20.2)
 Educational status
  Cannot read and write 45 (48.9) 22 (56.4) 61 (31.0)
  Able to read and write 14 (15.2) 5 (12.8) 59 (29.9)
  Attend formal education 33 (35.9) 12 (30.8) 77 (39.1)
 Number of years of education completed
  Mean (SD) 2.1 (3.3) 2.5 (3.7) 2.3 (3.8)
 Ethnicity
  Gurage 82 (89.1) 37 (94.8) 183 (92.9)
  Other 10 (10.9) 2 (5.1) 14 (7.1)
 Religion
  Orthodox Christian 81 (88.0) 36 (92.3) 177 (89.8)
  Other 11 (12.0) 3 (7.7) 20 (10.2)
 Occupational status
  Farming 15 (16.3) 10 (25.6) 130 (66.0)
  House wife 53 (57.6) 18 (46.2) 21 (10.7)
  Other 24 (26.1) 11 (28.2) 46 (23.4)
 Income level
  Lower 60 (65.2) 21 (53.8) 77 (39.1)
  Middle or higher 32 (34.8) 18 (46.2) 120 (60.9)
 Number of children
  No child 17 (18.5) 12 (30.8) 22 (11.2)
  1–4 children 43 (46.7) 11 (28.2) 90 (45.7)
  More than 4 children 32 (34.8) 16 (41.0) 85 (43.1)
Clinical characteristics
 Suicidal ideation
  Yes 54 (58.7) 8 (20.5)
  No 38 (41.3) 31 (79.5)  
 Suicidal plan
  Yes 29 (31.5) 8 (20.5)
  No 63 (68.5) 31 (79.5)  
 Suicidal attempt
  Yes 17 (18.5) 7 (17.9)
  No 75 (81.5) 32 (82.1)  
 Depressive symptom score
  Mean (SD) 10.46 (4.56) 8.93 (3.44) 1.64 (1.46)
 Functional impairment score
  Mean (SD) 26.81 (9.13) 25.15 (8.51) 14.56 (4.14)
 Alcohol use disorder score
  Mean (SD) 9.03 (8.14) 6.40 (6.63)
 Social support total score
  Mean (SD) 9.57 (2.88) 10.73 (1.80)
 Threatening life events score
  Mean (SD) 1.90 (2.06) 2.10 (1.79)
  1. PHC primary healthcare, SD standard deviation, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire, WHODAS WHO Disability Assessment Schedule