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Table 4 Factors associated with catastrophic health payments at the 40%+ threshold capacity to pay among households with a person with SMD and comparison households

From: Catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for households of people with severe mental disorder: a comparative study in rural Ethiopia

Factors Monthly OOP payment in Birr, mean (SD) Share of health payment as % of non-food consumption OOPCHE (40%+) Unadjusted model Adjusted model
Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Households of person with SMD 50.6 (82.1) 30.6 32.2 2.1 (1.2, 3.6)** 1.5 (1.0, 2.7)*
Households without person with SMD 51.7 (61.0) 22.7 18.2 1.00a 1.00a
Household size     0.5 (0.4, 0.7)*** 0.6 (0.4, 0.9)**
 Age ≥ 60 years in HH
  Yes 50.0 (78.8) 29.1 33.0 1.4 (0.9, 2.3) 1.2 (1.1, 2.2)*
  No 50.5 (64.3) 27.2 25.1 1.00a 1.00a
Area of residence
 Urban 58.1 (74.2) 26.6 27.1 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 1.3 (0.6, 2.5)
 Rural 49.2 (76.3) 28.4 27.8 1.00a 1.00a
Gender of the head of the HH
 Male 49.9 (75.5) 26.7 25.4 0.6 (0.3, 1.1) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7)
 Female 50.9 (71.3) 31.0 34.0 1.00a 1.00a
Household head education
 No formal education 44.2 (54.3) 27.1 24.3 0.8 (0.3, 1.8) 0.7 (0.3, 1.9)
 Primary education 63.0 (106.0) 29.8 35.3 1.4 (0.6, 3.2) 1.5 (0.6, 3.9)
 More than primary education 59.8 (88.4) 28.6 27.7 1.00a 1.00a
Children in the household
 0 54.8 (72.0) 36.0 40.5 2.6 (1.4, 4.7)** 1.2 (0.5, 3.0)
 1–2 56.9 (73.3) 29.0 27.8 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 0.8 (0.4, 1.7)
 3 and more 43.5 (80.0) 22.8 20.6 1.00a 1.00a
Consumption quintile
 Quintile 1 (lowest) 21.2 (14.3) 38.0 45.7 9.5 (3.7, 24.0)*** 10.8 (3.8, 30.5)***
 Quintile 2 34.5 (32.4) 34.8 38.0 6.9 (2.7, 17.5)*** 8.2 (2.9, 22.9)***
 Quintile 3 59.7 (79.4) 29.6 29.3 4.6 (1.8, 11.7)** 5.7 (2.0, 15.8)**
 Quintile 4 60.1 (70.0) 26.7 25.6 3.8 (1.5, 9.9)** 4.9 (1.7, 13.5)**
 Quintile 5 (highest) 67.7 (110.5) 16.0 8.1 1.00a 1.00a
  1. OOPCHE: out-of-pocket catastrophic health expenditure; HH: household
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; US$1 = Birr 20.69 (2015)
  3. aReference group