Skip to main content

Table 1 Background characteristics of households

From: Catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for households of people with severe mental disorder: a comparative study in rural Ethiopia

Household characteristics Households of person with severe mental disorder (SMD) (n = 290) Comparison households without person with SMD (n = 289) p-value
Socio-demographic and economic
 Household members (N) 1513 1522  
 Household size, mean (SD) 5.2 (2.2) 5.3 (2.1) 0.508
 Household composition, mean (SD)a 2.8 (0.9) 2.7 (0.8) 0.915
 Mean number of adults in household 3.2 (1.3) 2.9 (1.1) 0.004
 Children younger than 15 years, mean (SD) 1.9 (1.7) 2.3 (1.6) 0.004
Residence, n (%)
 Urban 55 (18.9) 53 (18.3) 0.847
 Rural 235 (81.0) 236 (81.7)
Gender, n (%)
 Male 210 (72.7) 223 (78.0) 0.140
 Female 79 (27.3) 63 (22.0)
Head age (years), mean (SD) 49.5 (14.2) 49.9 (14.0) 0.867
Head marital status, n (%)
 Never married 20 (6.9) 5 (1.7) 0.007
 Married 205 (70.9) 223 (77.7)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 64 (22.1) 59 (20.5)
Head education, n (%)
 No formal education 185 (63.7) 179 (61.9) 0.788
 Primary education 76 (26.2) 83 (28.7)
 More than primary 29 (10.0) 27 (9.3)
Head with health insurance, n (%) 3 (1.0) 8 (2.7) 0.262
 Annual median (IQR) food consumptionb 6087.8 (3785.5, 9533.3) 6240.0 (4356.7, 10,111.1) 0.868
 Annual median (IQR) non-food consumptionb 1570.0 (744.2, 3179.1) 1627.5 (680.0, 3235.5) 0.803
 Annual median (IQR) health consumptionb 290.9 (166.6, 678.2) 355.5 (195.2, 733.3) 0.308
Consumption quintile
 Lowest 62 (21.4) 52 (17.9) 0.613
 Low 64 (22.1) 57 (19.7)
 Middle 54 (18.6) 63 (21.8)
 High 54 (18.6) 63 (21.8)
 Highest 55 (19.0) 54 (18.6)
Clinical characteristics
 WHODAS, median (IQR) 52.7 (31.9, 69.4) 5.5 (0.0, 19.4) 0.000
  1. WHODAS score for the index patient and for the interviewed household member in the comparison group
  2. WHODAS: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule; IQR: inter-quartile range; SD: standard deviation
  3. aAdult equivalent
  4. bBirr; US$1 = Birr 20.69 (2015)