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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the association between loneliness and health variables

From: Loneliness correlates and associations with health variables in the general population in Indonesia

Variable (outcome) Variable response Model 1: unadjusted odds ratio or beta (95% CI) Model 2: adjusted odds ratio or beta (95% CI)b Model 3: adjusted odds ratio or beta (95% CI)c
Health status
 Unhealthy self-rated status No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.74 (1.62, 1.87)*** 1.81 (1.65, 1.99)*** 1.70 (1.57, 1.84)***
 Cognitive functioning Scale − 1.17 (− 1.37 to − 0.96)*** − 1.18 (− 1.37 to − 0.99)*** − 0.72 (− 0.90 to − 0.54)***
 Chronic medical conditions None 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
One or more 1.20 (1.10, 1.31)*** 1.20 (1.10, 1.31)*** 1.25 (1.16, 1.35)***
 Hypertensiona No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.10 (1.01, 1.21)* 1.08 (0.98, 1.20) 1.07 (0.99, 1.17)
 Stroke No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.66 (1.05, 2.63)* 1.58 (0.99, 2.50) 1.58 (1.08, 2.29)*
 Heart problems No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.33 (1.00, 1.76)* 1.28 (0.97, 1.70) 1.15 (0.89, 1.50)
 Diabetes No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 0.89 (0.67, 1.18) 0.84 (0.63, 1.13) 1.02 (0.81, 1.29)
 Depression symptoms Scale 5.34 (5.13 to 5.54)*** 5.33 (5.13 to 5.53)*** 5.19 (4.98 to 5.39)***
 Sleep disturbance Scale 0.35 (0.32 to 0.38)*** 0.35 (0.32 to 0.38)*** 0.34 (0.31 to 0.37)***
 Sleep related impairment Scale 0.71 (0.66 to 0.75)*** 0.70 (0.66 to 0.75)*** 0.69 (0.64 to 0.73)***
 Low life satisfaction No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 2.03 (1.87, 2.19)*** 2.04 (1.89, 2.21)*** 1.78 (1.64, 1.93)***
 Out-patient visit in the past 4 weeks No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Yes 1.09 (1.00, 1.18)* 1.09 (0.98, 1.21) 1.11 (1.01, 1.21)*
 Body mass indexa Scale − 0.59 (− 0.77 to − 0.41)*** − 0.56 (− 0.73 to − 0.39)*** − 0.35 (− 0.52 to − 0.18)***
 Tobacco use Never/former 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Current 1.16 (1.06, 1.77)*** 1.52 (1.38, 1.68)*** 1.42 (1.28, 1.58)***
 Physical activity Moderate/high 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Inactive 90.5 (0.83, 0.98)* 0.90 (0.83, 0.98)* 0.92 (0.85, 0.98)*
 Fruit and vegetable consumption Frequent 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Infrequent 1.10 (1.01, 1.24)* 1.09 (1.00, 1.18)* 1.04 (0.96, 1.12)
 Soft drink consumption No days/week Reference Reference Reference
1–7 days/week 1.12 (1.03, 1.21)** 1.15 (1.05, 1.25)** 1.20 (1.10, 1.31)***
  1. aIn the sample 18 years and above, b adjusted for age and sex, c adjusted for age, sex, marital status, residence, economic status, education, social capital, and neighbourhood trust