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Table 2 Predictors of loneliness

From: Loneliness correlates and associations with health variables in the general population in Indonesia

Variable Moderate loneliness Severe loneliness
CrRRR (95% CI) ARRR (95% CI) CrRRR (95% CI) ARRR (95% CI)
Gender
 Female 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Male 1.13 (1.05, 1.20)*** 1.06 (0.96, 1.16) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99)* 0.93 (0.85, 1.02)
Age
 15–29 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 30–59 0.54 (0.50, 0.58)*** 0.59 (0.52, 0.66)*** 0.84 (0.78, 0.90)*** 0.74 (0.66, 0.83)***
 60 or more 0.41 (0.35, 0.47)*** 0.37 (0.30, 0.46)*** 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 0.64 (0.53, 1.13)
Education
 None or elementary 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 High school or higher 0.80 (0.74, 0.87)*** 0.85 (0.76, 0.94)** 0.60 (0.56, 0.64)*** 0.60 (0.54, 0.66)***
Subjective economic background
 Poor 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Medium 0.84 (0.77, 0.92)*** 0.82 (0.73, 0.92)*** 0.59 (0.55, 0.64)*** 0.66 (0.60, 0.73)***
 Rich 0.70 (0.64, 0.78)*** 0.69 (0.60, 0.79)*** 0.56 (0.51, 0.61)*** 0.65 (0.57, 0.72)***
Marital status
 Unmarried 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Married, cohabitating 0.50 (0.46, 0.55)*** 0.72 (0.63, 0.82)*** 0.78 (0.72, 0.85)*** 0.77 (0.67, 0.87)***
 Separated/divorced/widowed 0.57 (0.49, 0.66)*** 0.92 (0.73, 1.14) 1.23 (1.09, 1.39)*** 1.05 (0.86, 1.28)
Residence
 Rural 1 (reference 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Urban 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 1.02 (0.92, 1.11) 0.87 (0.81, 0.93)*** 0.97 (0.89, 1.05)
Childhood hunger
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 1.29 (1.14, 1.46)*** 1.36 (1.15, 1.61)*** 1.82 (1.65, 2.01)*** 1.52 (1.33, 1.73)***
Childhood health status
 Poor/fair 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Good 0.86 (0.79, 0.93)*** 0.89 (0.80, 0.99)* 0.76 (0.70, 0.82)*** 0.81 (0.74, 0.89)***
 Very good 0.89 (0.81, 0.98)* 0.90 (0.79, 1.01) 0.89 (0.82, 0.97)** 0.96 (0.86, 1.06)
Chronic conditions
 None 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 One 1.12 (1.03, 1.22)* 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)* 1.18 (1.09, 1.28)*** 1.20 (1.09, 1.32)***
 Two or more 1.22 (1.08, 1.39)** 1.22 (1.04, 1.43)* 1.28 (1.15, 1.41)*** 1.32 (1.15, 1.51)***
IADL
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 1.65 (1.52, 1.79)*** 1.42 (1.28, 1.57)*** 1.56 (1.45, 1.67)*** 1.41 (1.28, 1.54)***
Social capital
 Low 1.18 (1.07, 1.29)*** 1.03 (0.93, 1.13) 1.08 (0.99, 1.17 1.03 (0.94, 1.13)
Neighbourhood trust
 Scale 0.91 (0.86, 0.96)*** 0.92 (0.87, 097)** 0.90 (0.85, 0.94)*** 0.90 (0.86, 0.95)***
  1. IADL, instrumental activities of daily living *** P < 0.001; ** P < 0.01; * P < 0.05; CrRRR, crude relative risk ratio; ARRR, adjusted relative risk ratio