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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Loneliness correlates and associations with health variables in the general population in Indonesia

Variable Variable specification Total
Total, n   31,447
Age, median (IQR)   35.0 (22.0)
Sex Males 49.2%
Females 50.8%
Age 15–29 21.9%
30–59 58.8%
60 or more 19.3%
Education High school or higher 58.1%
None or elementary 41.9%
Subjective economic background Poor 24.8%
Medium 46.7%
Rich 28.5%
Marital status Unmarried 16.4%
Married, cohabitating 72.9%
Separated/divorced/widowed 10.6%
Residence Urban 53.4%
Childhood hunger Yes 8.4%
Childhood health status Poor/fair 37.2%
Good 40.2%
Very good 22.6%
Chronic conditions One or more 35.1%
Instrumental activities of daily living Yes 23.7%
Social capital Low 41.5%
Neighbourhood trust Scale M = 6.0 (SD = 0.8)
Self-rated status Unhealthy 21.9%
Cognitive functioning Scale M = 18.8 (SD = 4.6)
Hypertensiona Yes 31.9%
Stroke Yes 1.0%
Heart problems Yes 1.9%
Diabetes Yes 2.7%
Depression symptoms Scale M = 5.9 (SD = 4.4)
Sleep disturbance Scale M = 2.2 (SD = 0.7)
Sleep related impairment Scale M = 1.9 (SD = 0.9)
Life satisfaction Low 14.6%
Out-patient visit in the past 4 weeks Yes 18.9%
Body mass indexa Scale M = 23.3 (SD = 4.6)
Tobacco use Current 32.9%
Physical activity Inactive 47.7%
Fruit and vegetable consumption Infrequent 38.2%
Soft drink consumption One day or more in a week 17.9%
Loneliness Rarely or none of the time (< 1 day) 81.0%
Some or a little of the time (1–2 days) 8.0%
Occasionally/moderate amount of time (3–4 days) 7.3%
All of the time (5–7 days) 3.3%
  1. IQR, interquartile range; M, mean; SD, standard deviation
  2. aIn the sample 18 years and above