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Table 1 Outcome space of participant conceptions of practice in staff prevention and management of staff-directed aggression and violence

From: Encountering staff-directed aggression within mental health and substance abuse services: exploring conceptions of practice following education

Descriptive categories Referential aspect Structural aspect
1. Observation, reporting and expectation of organizational intervention Safe-guarding the boundaries of services and maintaining staff safety Focus on organizational responsibility
2. Application of personalized de-escalating skills and behaviour Finding practical and applicable solutions without access to a fixed set of methods and strategies Focus on staff’s idiosyncratic abilities, prerequisites and techniques
3. Delivery of team-based and standardized services Seeing the need for systematic problem-solving in the handling and management of risk Focus on cooperation and support between experienced and skilled colleagues
4. Provision of perceptive and responsive services Recognizing service users as sources of valuable information in making sound professional judgements Focus on communication with service users and abilities for employing informed service-provision by staff
5. Facilitation of sensitive, involving and reflexive care Professional practice as attentive of human complexity and valuing interpersonal relations Focus on service users and staff as persons, and reciprocal connectivity