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Table 2 Perceived impact of contextual factors on sense of wellbeing using Mann–Whitney test (n = 148)

From: Perceived impact of contextual determinants on depression, anxiety and stress: a survey with university students

Contextual factorsSelf-perceived negative impacta
Median (inter-quartile range)
AllMaleFemalep value
Interpersonal factors
 Physical abuse1 (0, 1)0 (0, 5)0 (0, 1)0.054
 Bullying1 (0, 4)1 (0, 4)1 (0, 4)0.66
 Feeling judged4 (1, 6)3 (1, 5)4 (1, 6)0.87
 Conflict with non-family members2 (1, 4)2 (0, 4)3 (1, 4)0.71
Family factors
 Meeting family members’ expectations4 (2, 5)3.5 (1, 5)4 (2, 5)0.17
 Fulfilling family obligations2 (1, 5)1 (0, 3.8)3 (1, 5)0.04
 Family conflict4 (1, 5)3 (1, 4.8)4 (2, 6)0.02
Social factors
 Social exclusion4 (1, 5)4 (3, 6)4 (1, 5)0.07
 Discrimination (race, ethnicity, gender)1 (0, 4)1 (0, 4.8)1 (0, 40.85
 Gender identity/sexual orientation0 (0, 1)0 (0, 3)0 (0, 1)0.44
Socioeconomic factors
 Paying tuition fees4 (2, 5)4 (2, 5)4 (2, 5)0.94
 Limited access to housing and food0 (0, 3)0 (0, 4)0 (0, 2)0.78
 Limited access to health services1 (0, 4)0 (0, 2)1 (0, 4)0.12
 Commute to school or work2 (1, 5)1 (0, 2.8)3 (1, 5)0.004
 Working conditions0 (0,3)0 (0, 4)0 (0, 2)0.28
 Finding desired employment5 (2, 6)4 (3, 6)5 (2, 6)0.64
Political factors
 Local news and events1 (0, 3)1 (0, 3.8)1 (0, 3)0.78
 National and global news and events3 (1, 4)3 (1, 4)2 (1, 4)0.57
Grade-point-average, GPA4 (3, 6)4 (3, 6)4 (3, 5)0.84
  1. aScale 0–7: 0 = no negative impact and 7 = extreme negative impact