Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence studies

From: Mental health of people detained within the justice system in Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference *If same sample as another study in list Study design Study setting Country setting Comparison [If yes (Y), describe; no (N)] Strategy, whether sample size calculation was reported for non-census strategies Ethics reporting (documented ethics committee approval; described informed consent procedure) Participants characteristics (sample size, mean age, percent male) *Indicates gender as inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria (excluding age criteria) Trial status category (C = over 50% convicted; NC = over 50% not convicted; NC/A = over 50% “awaiting trial”; JI = over 50% youth justice-involved; U = unclear; NA = not applicable; NS = not stated) Assessment instruments (diagnostic or screening tool) Primary outcomes (p-value listed if provided in study) Methods risk of bias score
Abdulmalik et al. 2014 [82] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Census Yes, Yes 725, 31.1, 98.7% Awaiting trial and remanded; GHQ-12 ≥ 5 for phase 2 NC/A *Awaiting trial GHQ-12 (S), MINI (D) 56.6% prevalence of mental illness (MINI), assessed after scoring ≥ 5 GHQ-12. Depression 20.8%; alcohol dependence 20.6%; substance dependence 20.1%; suicidality 19.8%; antisocial personality disorder 18%; panic disorder 8.3%; OCD 8.3%; PTSD 3.3%; GAD 2.8%; psychosis 1.1% Low
Agbahowe et al. 1998 [83] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Census No, No 100, 31.4, 93% Convicted; GHQ-30 > 4 for phase 2 C *Convicted and no other classification (81%), convicted but detained (6%); convicted and condemned to death (13%) GHQ-30 (S), Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (PAS) (D), SCAN (D) 34% ≥ 4 score on GHQ-30; 100% of GHQ-30 ≥ 4 cases had DSM IIIR Axis I diagnosis Low
Agboola et al. 2017 [84] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random, N Yes, Yes 94, 28.5, 100%* Male NS, awaiting trial and convicted GHQ-28 (S), Present State Examination (PSE) (D), PULSES (S) 39% prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PSE). As measured by PSE, 20.2% of total participants diagnosed with depression; 14.8% anxiety; 3.2% schizophrenia; 1.1% mania; 1.1% OCD. 57.4% participants scored ≥ 5 on the GHQ-28. Of participants with psychiatric diagnosis, 39.7% with co-morbid physical illness (PULSES) Low
Akkinawo 1993 [85] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random, NS No, No 136, NS, 93.4% NA NS API (S), BDI (S) 20.86% depression (BDI); 35.29% general mood disorder; 30.15% general psychopathology; 26.47% sleep disorder (API) Medium
*Armiya’u et al. 2013 “Prevalence of…” [86] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N NS No, No 608, 32.1, 100%* Males (though unclear); NA for phase 1, > 4 GHQ-28 for phase 2 NC/A *60% awaiting trial, 40% convicted GHQ-28 (S), CIDI (D) 57% psychiatric morbidity (CIDI), administered to those with GHQ-28 score ≥ 4 Medium
*Armiya’u et al. 2013 “A study of…” [87] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N NS Yes, No 608, 32.1, 100%* Males (though unclear); NA for phase 1, > 4 GHQ-28 for phase 2 NC/A *60% awaiting trial, 40% convicted GHQ-28 (S), PULSES (S), CIDI (D) 57% psychiatric morbidity (CIDI), administered to those with GHQ-28 score ≥ 4. 18% prevalence of co-morbid physical illness (comorbid illness indicated by PULSES) Medium
*Beyen et al. 2017 [88] Prevalence Prison Ethiopia N Random, Y Yes, Yes 649, 27.8, 89.8% NA NS GAD-7 (S), K10 (S), PHQ-9, (S) OSS (S), questionnaire (S) 83.4% psychological distress (K10); 43.8% signs of depression (PHQ-9); 36.1% anxiety (GAD-7); 45.1% without social support (OSS). 17% suicidal ideation; 16.6% already planned to commit suicide; 11.9% at least one suicide attempt while in prison (questionnaire) Low
*Dachew et al. 2015 [89] (same sample as Beyen) Prevalence Prison Ethiopia N Random, Y Yes, Yes 649, 27.8, 89.8% NA NS K10 (S), questionnaire (S), MSPSS (S) 83.4% psychological distress (K10). 43.6% of the respondents feel that they had been discriminated by their families, friends and significant others because of their imprisonment (questionnaire or MPSS, source not stated). 64.7% “yes” reported social support; 35.3 “no” (MPSS) Low
*Dadi et al. 2016 [90] (same sample as Beyen) Prevalence Prison Ethiopia N Random, Y Yes, Yes 649, 27.8, 89.8% NA NS GAD-7 (S) 36.1% anxiety (GAD-7) Low
Fatoye et al. 2006 [91] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Census No, Yes 303, 31.2, 96.4% NA NC/A *81.3% awaiting trial, 18.7% sentenced GHQ-30 (S), HADS (S) 87.8% possible psychiatric morbidity (GHQ-30 ≥ 5). 85.3% HADS ≥ 8 significant depressive symptoms Low
Ibrahim et al. 2015 [92] Prevalence Prison Ghana N Random and census, NS Yes, Yes 100, 37, 89% NA NS K10 (S) 64% K10 scores ≥ 25 indicating moderate to severe mental distress Low
Kanyanya 2007 [93] Prevalence Prison Kenya N Census No, Yes 76, 33.5, 100%* Males, convicted of sex offense C SCID (D), IPDE (D) 35.5% DSM-IV Axis 1 disorder (SCID). 34% prevalence of DSM-IV Axis 2 disorders (SCID and IPDE) Medium
*Mafullul 2000 [94] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Census No, No 118, 33.9, 96% Convicted of homicide C Psychiatric record (D) Psychotic disorders and substance use disorders, including alcohol intoxication, suggested to be held to accountable for 39.8% persons’ offenses. 45% of participants had positive histories of substance use disorders High
*Mafullul et al. 2001 [95] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Census Yes, No 118, 33.9, 96% Convicted of homicide C Psychiatric record (D) 68% of the accused referred for pre-trial psychiatric assessment had killed victims as a result of psychotic motives. Court recognized that alcohol intoxication and psychotic motives accounted for the offenses of 24% of the accused. Study indicates that substance use disorders may have accounted for offenses of 45% of accused High
Majekodunmi et al. 2017 [96] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random, Y Yes, Yes 196, 32.8, 100%* Male, those with no past treatment for mental illness, no debilitating physical illness NC/A, 69.4% awaiting trial, 30.6% convicted SCID-IV (D), Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (S),, Medical history questionnaire (S) 30.1% depression; mean total MADRS score 23.9 among awaiting trial participants. 35.0% depression; mean total MADRS score 25.5 among awaiting trial participants. From medical history questionnaire, resence of physical complaints (p = 0.014) and chronic illness (p = 0.023) associated with depression among awaiting trial participants; family history of psychiatric illness associated with depression among convicted participants (p = 0.046) Low
Mela et al. 2014 [97] Prevalence Prison Ethiopia N Census Yes, Yes 546, NS, 94.3% Convicted of homicide C SRQ-20 (S) SCID-IV (D) 35.5% SRQ-indicated psychological distress. Among 316 participants who agreed to undergo a psychiatric interview for Axis I diagnosis (SCID-IV), 41.8% history of substance use disorder; 25% depression; 10.1% adjustment disorder; 7.6% anxiety disorder; 0.6% PTSD; 0.6% psychotic disorder; 1.6% psychotic disorder due to medical condition; 15.8% personality disorder (SCID) Low
Naidoo and Mkize 2012 [98] Prevalence Prison South Africa N Random, Y Yes, Yes 193, 30.5, 95.8% NA C *62% convicted, 38% awaiting trial MINI (D) 55.4% Axis 1 disorder from MINI Medium
Nseluke and Siziya 2011 [99] Prevalence Prison Zambia N Random, Y Yes, Yes 206, 33.7, 83% NA NC/A *74.3% awaiting trial, 23.3% sentenced, 1.9% probation violation, 0.5% parole violation SRQ (S) 63.1% mental illness as indicated by SRQ Low
Osasona and Koleoso 2015 [100] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random and census, NS Yes, Yes 252, 33.7, 90.9% NA C *57.1% sentenced, 42.9% awaiting trial SRQ-20 (S), HADS (S) 84.5% of the respondents had at least one type of psychiatric morbidity (SRQ and HADS combined). Prevalence of general psychiatric morbidity, SRQ-20 score ≥ 5, 80.6%. 72.6% and 77.8% were found to be positive for depression and anxiety symptoms respectively on the HADS Low
Schaal et al. 2012 [101] Prevalence Prison Rwanda Y (genocide survivors) Random, NS Yes, Yes 269, 48.5, 65.8% (genocide perpetrators); 114, 46.6, 36.3% (survivors) Perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide, over 18 years in 1994 C *89.6% convicted, 10.4% not sentenced PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I) (D), PDS Event Scale (S), Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) (S), suicidality scale from the MINI (S) Diagnostic criteria for PTSD met by 13.5% perpetrators and 46.4% of interviewed survivors (p < 0.001) (PSS-I). Clinically significant anxiety prevalence 35.8% among perpetrators (HSCL-25); 58.9% among survivors (p < .001). Depression in both groups (46% survivors vs. 41% perpetrators) (HSCL-25). 18.6% perpetrators and 19.3% survivors had suicide risk (MINI). Perpetrators with more severe depression symptoms (HSCL-25) reported high levels of trauma confrontation (PDS) and had not participated in killings Low
*Uche and Princewill 2015 “Clinical factors…” [102] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random, Y Yes, Yes 400, 33.8, 98% Awaiting trial; BDI-screen positive for phase 2 NC/A* awaiting trial BDI (S), SCAN Depression Component (D) 42% BDI > 10 screen fulfilling the criteria for current depressive disorder. 42% fulfilled SCAN criteria for current depression disorder diagnosis Low
*Uche and Princewill 2015 “Prevalence…” [103] Prevalence Prison Nigeria N Random, Y Yes, Yes 400, 33.8, 98% Awaiting trial; BDI-screen positive for phase 2 NC/A *89% awaiting trial, 5% convicted, 0.1% assigned legal category of “lunatics,” death row condemned 5%, serving life imprisonment jail terms 0.5% BDI (S), SCAN depression component (D) 42% BDI > 10 screen fulfilling the criteria for current depressive disorder. 42% fulfilled SCAN criteria for current depression disorder diagnosis Low
Barrett et al. 2007 [52] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 71, NS, 94.4% Psychiatric referrals NC *Detained “state patients” accused but found unfit to stand trial or not responsible, referred to forensic ward Psychiatric record (D) Schizophrenia (35.2%), mental retardation (22.5%) and psychoses other than schizophrenia (11.3%) most prevalent, followed by bipolar disorder (5.6%). 84.5% not able to stand trial and not accountable; 7% not fit to stand trial and accountable; 8.5% not accountable and fit to stand trial Medium
Buchan 1976 [104] Prevalence Forensic ward Zimbabwe N Census No, No 256, NS, NS Psychiatric referrals U *Referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) Prevalence of schizophrenia 44%; epilepsy 22% High
Calitz et al. 2006 [105] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 514, 30 (median), 94.6% Psychiatric referrals NC/A *Awaiting trial, referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 46% psychiatric prevalence. Medium
du Plessis et al. 2017 [106] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 505, NA, 94% Awaiting trial; psychiatric referrals NC/A *Awaiting trial, referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) Those not accountable significantly more likely to have mental illness (p = 0.0001) and be diagnosed with schizophrenia (p = 0.0001), intellectual disability (p = 0.0001), and substance-induced psychotic disorder (p = 0.02) than those not accountable. 98% of those found not accountable had mental illness. 66% total sample had known history of substance abuse Low
Hayward et al. 2010 [107] Prevalence Forensic ward Malawi N Census No, No 283, 30.4, 91.5% Psychiatric referrals U *Detained in hospital Psychiatric record (D) Prevalence of schizophrenia 35.5%; substance misuse 32.5%; 19.8% alcohol and 23% illicit substance; depression 3%; mania or personality disorder 0%; epilepsy 8.1% Medium
Hemphill and Fisher 1980 [108] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census No, No 604, NS, 100%* Males (though unclear); psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 52% substance abuse of drugs, alcohol, or both. Prevalence of psychosis (53%), severe psychopathy without psychosis (21%), and non-psychotic conditions including neurosis, mild personality disorder, eplepsy and mental retardation (26%). More than 70% of patients with psychopathy screened positive for substance abuse of alcohol, drugs or both High
Khoele et al. 2016 [109] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 32, 29.8, 0% Women; charged with murder or attempted murder, psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 59% psychiatric diagnosis; 28% psychotic; 25% mood disorders; 6% substance disorders; 19% attempted suicide Medium
Marais and Subramaney 2015 [53] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, Yes 114, 32, 87% Psychiatric referrals NC *Detained “state patients” accused but found unfit to stand trial or not responsible, referred to forensic ward Psychiatric record (D) Past psychiatric history (59%); substance abuse history (71%). 69% psychotic disorders; 44% schizophrenia. Bipolar mania 4%; major depressive disorder 4%; epilepsy 4%. Alcohol the most frequently abused substance (57%); cannabis 47%. 37% reported a history of polysubstance abuse Medium
Matete 1991 [110] Prevalence Forensic ward Kenya N Census No, No 51, 28.8, 90.2% Psychiatric referrals NC *Detained in hospital: court referrals to hospital, referred to as “criminal remands” Psychiatric record (D) 86.3% mental illness Medium
Mbassa 2009 [111] Prevalence Forensic ward Cameroon N Random, NS No, No 12, 18.3, 66.7% Convicted of homicide C *Convicted, detained in hospital Psychiatric record, ICD-10 criteria (D) 41.7% schizophrenia; delirium 25%; personality disorder 8.3% High
Menezes 2010 [112] Prevalence Forensic ward Zimbabwe N Census Yes, Yes 39, 35.0, 87.2 Homicide offense, psychiatric referrals NC *Detained in hospital: court referrals to hospital, referred to as “criminal remands” Psychiatric record (D), questionnaire (S) 84.61% schizophrenia or psychosis; 2.56% personality disorder; 12.82% epilepsy Medium
Menezes et al. 2007 [113] Prevalence Forensic ward Zimbabwe, England, Wales Y (referral patients in England and Wales) Census Yes, Yes 367, 36.0, 91.8% (Zimbabwe); 1966, 29.7, 83.6% (England/Wales) Psychiatric referrals U *Referrals to hospital Psychiatric record, ICD-9 criteria (D), questionnaire (S) 78.7% of patients in Zimbabwe had a mental disorder diagnosis compared with 51.5% in England and Wales (p < 0.001). 6.3% had personality disorder diagnosis in Zimbabwe; 36.6% in England and Wales Medium
Odejide 1981 [114] Prevalence Forensic ward Nigeria N Census No, No 53, 38.7, 83% Psychiatric referrals U *Referrals to hospital PSP (D) 75.5% schizophrenia; 5.7% drug-induced psychosis; 18.9% epilepsy (PSP) Medium
Offen et al. 1986 [115] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census No, No 162, 20–40, 0% Psychiatric referrals U *Referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 82% had psychiatric abnormality, including 34% of total sample with significant psychiatric findings, but these were not considered of a critical enough nature to warrant the label “mental illness.” Medium
Ogunlesi et al. 1988 [116] Prevalence Forensic ward Nigeria N Census No, No 146, 34.5, 98% Psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital. Not convicted at time of diagnosis, but later conviction data provided Psychiatric record (D) 45% schizophrenia; 4% mania; 3.3% depression; 0.7% paranoid state; 19.5% total drug abuse/dependence; 16.8% cannabis abuse; 2.7% alcoholism; 6.7% epilepsy. 75% had a previous history of psychiatric disorder; 45% admitted a previous history of drug abuse. 48% judged “criminal lunatics” either not guilty by reason of insanity or guilty but insane. 30% discharged by courts; 1 sentenced to death; 1 sentenced to a prison term. 46.3% of offenders absconded from the institution Medium
Prinsloo and Hesselink 2014 [117] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Purposive, NS No, No 91, NS, 100% Psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 83.5% at least one mental health disorder Medium
Strydom et al. 2011 [54] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 120, 32.5, 95.8% Psychiatric referrals NC *Detained “state patients” accused but found unfit to stand trial or not responsible, referred to forensic ward Psychiatric record (D) Most had a history of abusing substances such as alcohol (74%), cannabis (66.7%), tobacco (29.6%) and glue (6.2%). 55.5% diagnosed with schizophrenia; 9.2% bipolar mood disorder; 5.9% psychosis due to general medical condition; 4.2% psychosis due to epilepsy; 3.4% psychosis due to substance abuse; 1.7% delirium; 10% other disorder Medium
Touari et al. 1993 [118] Prevalence Forensic ward Algeria N Census No, No 2882, 30.1, 94.3% Psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial Psychiatric record (D) 11.1% diagnosis of psychosis. 1.4% diagnosis of manic depression Medium
Turkson and Asante 1997 [55] Prevalence Forensic ward Ghana N Census No, No 130, NS, 94.6% Psychiatric referrals and state patients NC *Detained in hospital: Pre-trial, convicted, or found unfit to stand trial. Participants were “predominantly patients who had been found guilty but insane or those found unfit to proceed with their trial” due to “insanity” Psychiatric record (D) and clinical observation by author (S) 81.6% had a psychiatric diagnosis as indicated by clinical records. At the time of the study, 70.9% of total patients exhibited no florid psychotic symptoms, all patients with a diagnosis of harmful drug use were free from symptoms; 93.8% diagnosed with drug-induced psychosis were fully recovered Medium
Verster and Van Rensburg 1999 [119] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census Yes, No 126, NS, 98.4% Have homicide offense and psychiatric referrals NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 42.1% had a psychiatric diagnosis Medium
Yusuf and Nuhu 2009 [120] Prevalence Forensic ward Nigeria N Census No, No 19. 28.9, 73.7% Psychiatric referrals NS Psychiatric record (D) Schizophrenia was the most common psychiatric disorder (68.4%), co-morbid substance use present in 57.9% Medium
Zabow 1989 [121] Prevalence Forensic ward South Africa N Census No, No 202, NS, 90% Homicide convicts NC *Pre-trial referrals to hospital Psychiatric record (D) 15.8% prevalence of “significant psychiatric findings.” Alcohol and drugs were contributory to the criminal behavior in 50% of cases. The number of murders committed increased by 25.2% in 1977–1984 compared to an increase of 115.8% in the number of psychiatric referrals during the same period. Following hospital assessment, 60.4% had no psychiatric diagnosis Medium
Atilola et al. 2014 [7] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria Y (school-going adolescents, age matched but school-going youth slightly younger. Detained youth 18.7 ± 2.4 years old [Range 16–20 years] vs. school kids 18.2 ± 2.5 [Range 15–19 years]) Census Yes, No 144, 18.7, 100% (participants in Borstal home); 144, 18.2, 100% (school-going youth) NA JI *Detained in borstal institution in juvenile justice system: classified 52.1% juvenile offenders; 47.9% youth beyond parental control (no offense) K-SADS-PL (D) 90% of the justice-involved youth in borstal home reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event, compared with 60% of the comparison group (p = 0.001). Justice-involved youth also had a higher mean number of incident lifetime traumatic events (p < 0.001), and higher prevalence rate of current and lifetime PTSD than the comparison group (p < 0.05). Justice-involved more likely to be victims of violent crime (p < 0.001), have experienced physical abuse (p < 0.001), and be perpetrators of a violent crime (p = 0.002) (K-SADS-PL) Low
Atilola 2012 “Different points…” [122] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria Y (within-institution comparison of youth on criminal code vs. youth in care of state/neglected youth) Census Yes, Yes 158, 17.5, 96. % (criminal code group); 53, 12.5, 74% (in care of state) NA JI *75% criminal code or beyond parental control, 25% due to maltreatment/neglect K-SADS (D) Conduct/behavior disorders had 63% prevalence among “criminal code” youth vs. 39%, among neglect group (p < 0.001). Prevalence of multiple traumatic events 27% among criminal code youth; 26%, neglect group (p = 0.43). PTSD prevalence 13% among criminal code youth; 22% among neglect group (p = 0.12). Substance use prevalence was 61% among those on criminal code compared to 11% youth detained due to neglect/maltreatment (p = 0.003) (all K-SADS) Medium
Atilola 2012 “Prevalence and correlates…” [6] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria Y (school-going adolescents, age and gender matched, randomly selecter) Census Yes, Yes 60 (in remand home), 60 (school-going), 12.5* (pooled), 66.6%* (pooled)
*Only pooled statistics given
NA NC *77% in home due to maltreatment/neglect, 10% classified as “offenders,” 13% beyond parental control K-SADS-PL (D) 63% remanded participants had at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder compared to 23% control (p < .001); 22% had at least one current psychiatric disorder compared to 3% control (p < .004) (K-SADS-PL) Medium
Atilola et al. 2016 [50] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria Y (within-institution comparison of “criminal code” vs. other groups) Random, NS Yes, Yes 178, 15.19, 61.8% (total participants, pooled) NA NC *19.1% classified “young offenders,” 73.6% care and protection of state, 7.3% beyond parental control K-SADS (D) Lifetime prevalence rate of abuse of/dependence on any substance was 22.5%. 12.3% alcohol abuse/dependence; 17.9% other substance abuse/dependence. Higher proportion of participants who were remanded under the ‘young offender’ category met criteria for lifetime substance use disorder compared with those under the care and protection and beyond-parental-control category (p = 0.004). Length of staying on the streets or by self was associated with problematic use (abuse or dependence) (p = 0.007) (K-SADS) Low
*Atilola et al. 2017 “Correlations…” [123] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Random, NS Yes, Yes 165, 14.3, 75% NA NS *Remanded youth: criminal code, neglected/in care of state, or beyond parental control SDQ (S), PedsQo (S) 18% abnormal SDQ score suggesting presence of psychiatric disorder; 27% had ‘highly probable’ psychopathology (SDQ). Negative correlation (p < 0.001) between total SDQ scores and overall self-reported quality of life (PedsQo) Low
*Atilola et al. 2017 “Status…” [124] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Random, NS Yes, Yes 165, 14.3, 75.2% NA NS *Remanded youth: criminal code, neglected/in care of state, or beyond parental control SDQ (S), CRAFFT (S), questionnaire (S), Audit Protocol (S) 18.2% general psychiatric morbidity by SDQ ≥ 17; 44.6% prevalence SDQ ≥ 15; 15.8% alcohol/substance use disorder (CRAFFT > 2). 34.3% of the operational staff at the institutions had educational backgrounds relevant to psychosocial services for children/adolescents. Less than a quarter (22.4%) ever received any training in child mental health services (questionnaire and Audit protocol) Low
*Adegunloye et al. 2010 [125] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census No, No 53, 17.3, 100% NA JI * Detained in borstal institution in juvenile justice system GHQ-12 (S), MINI-KID (D) 67.9% current psychiatric disorder (MINI-KID). GHQ scores not reported Low
*Ajiboye et al. 2009 (same sample as Adegunloye) [126] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census No, Yes 53, 17.3, 100% NA JI * Detained in borstal institution in juvenile justice system GHQ-12 (S), MINI-KID (D) 67.9% current psychiatric disorder (MINI-KID). GHQ scores not reported Low
*Issa et al. 2009 (same sample as Adegunloye) [127] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census Yes, Yes 53, 17.3, 100% NA JI * Detained in borstal institution in juvenile justice system: classified “juvenile offenders” or those “in need of correction” GHQ-12 (S) 49.1% GHQ-positive (> 3 on GHQ-12), indicating possible psychiatric morbidity Medium
*Yusuf et al. 2011 (same sample as Adegunloye) [128] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census No, Yes 53, 17.3, 100% NA JI * I Detained in borstal institution in juvenile justice system GHQ-12 (S), MINI-KID (D) 50.9% had MINI-KID lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Majority (62.3%) had psychiatric problems in the past 12 months. When all lifetime and current psychiatric diagnoses were collapsed, 98.1% had ‘any psychiatric disorder. 49.1% GHQ-12 > 3, indicating possible psychiatric morbidity Low
Bella et al. 2010 [51] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N NS No, Yes 59, 11.7, 60% NA NC *90% under care and protection of state, 7% beyond parental control, 3% criminal code/“youth offenders” K-SADS (D) 100% had significant psychosocial needs presenting as difficulty with their primary support, social environment, or education systems. 97% demonstrated some form of psychopathy Medium
*Olashore et al. 2016 [129] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census Yes, Yes 148, 17.1, 100% NA JI * Detained in borstal institution under criminal code or beyond parental control; 40.8% detained for “non-delinquent reason” MINI-KID (D) 56.5% met the criteria for conduct disorder (MINI-KID). Number of siblings (p = 0.010) and previous history of detention (p = 0.043) were independent predictors of CD Low
*Olashore et al. 2017 [130] Prevalence Youth Institution Nigeria N Census Yes, Yes 148, 17.1, 100% NA JI * Detained in borstal institution under criminal code or beyond parental control; 40.8% detained for “non-delinquent reason” MINI-KID (D) 56.5% met the criteria for conduct disorder (MINI-KID). Substance use, depression, or oppositional defiant disorder not significantly associated with “offender” status. CD is associated (p < .001) with “offender” status Low