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Table 6 Factors associated with total inpatient costs (GEE Model)

From: Direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia: a 4-year cohort study from health insurance claims data in Guangzhou city, Southern China

  Overall UEBMI URBMI
n = 2971 n = 1760 n = 1211
Coef. Std. err. Marginal effect Coef. Std. err. Marginal effect Coef. Std. err. Marginal effect
Follow-up years
 Baseline (reference group)
 First year 0.097*** 0.007 4964.3 0.081*** 0.010 4277.5 0.120*** 0.010 5885.0
 Second year 0.087*** 0.007 4443.3 0.075*** 0.010 3973.3 0.102*** 0.010 5027.3
 Third year 0.124*** 0.008 6356.6 0.126*** 0.011 6618.8 0.125*** 0.011 6135.1
Age
 18 ≤ age < 30 (reference group)
 30 ≤ age < 40 0.162*** 0.030 8280.9 0.223*** 0.057 11,751.0 0.115*** 0.035 5670.0
 40 ≤ age < 50 0.042** 0.018 2148.3 0.074** 0.034 3886.1 0.002 0.018 116.0
 50 ≤ age < 60 − 0.001 0.010 − 56.9 − 0.003 0.015 − 172.2 − 0.016 0.012 − 795.9
 ≥ 60 0.018** 0.008 900.3 0.028*** 0.010 1470.9 − 0.011 0.012 − 536.1
Gender
 Female (reference group)
 Male − 0.016 0.008 − 815.8 − 0.004 0.012 − 203.7 − 0.032*** 0.011 − 1565.8
Insurance type
 URBMI (reference group)
 UEBMI 0.103*** 0.008 5270.0
Hospital levels
 Primary (reference group)
 Secondary 0.091 0.047 4655.8 0.179** 0.076 9423.8 0.0003 0.047 -14.1
 Tertiary 0.447*** 0.047 22,894.6 0.576*** 0.075 30,330.8 0.299*** 0.047 14,701.1
Length of stay (days)
 Days ≤ 100 (reference group)
 100 < days ≤ 300 1.161*** 0.019 59,471.0 1.155*** 0.025 60,862.5 1.165*** 0.029 57,349.4
 > 300 days 1.707*** 0.017 87,481.9 1.705*** 0.022 89,848.1 1.714*** 0.025 84,387.9
Wald chi2 17,506.97 9853.84 8309.63
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  1. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model estimates are reported in the table
  2. UEBMI Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme, URBMI Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05