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Table 2 Sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with depression symptoms among perinatal women in Sehore District, India, 2013–2016

From: Characteristics of perinatal depression in rural central, India: a cross-sectional study

  PHQ9 score, median (IQR) PHQ9 ≥ 10 (%)
Total 4 (2–7) 12.4
Age, years
 18–22 5 (3–8) 16.8
 23–26 3 (1–6) 8.3
 ≥ 27 4 (2–7) 12.5
Education, years
 0–5 4 (2–7) 11.4
 6–11 5 (2–7) 12.7
 ≥ 12 4 (2–6) 14.1
Religion
 Muslim 5 (3–8) 15.3
 Hindu 4 (2–7) 11.5
Caste
 Scheduled caste/tribe 4 (2–7) 10.1
 Other backwards caste 4 (2–7) 13.8
 General/none 4 (3–6) 10.5
Housing quality
 Low 4 (2–7) 12.4
 Intermediate 4 (2–6) 7.4
 High 5 (2–8) 15.6
Currently pregnant
 No 3 (1–6) 8.5
 Yes 5 (3–8) 16.9
Parity
 Primigravida 5 (3–6) 11.8
 Daughter(s) only 4 (2–7) 13.3
 ≥ 1 son 4 (2–7) 12.1
Disability level
 Lower 2 (1–4) 1.4
 Average 5 (3–7) 11.3
 Higher 6 (5–10) 27.3
Suicidal ideationb
 No 4 (2–6) a 10.8
 Yes 8 (4–11) a 38.1
Study recruitment base
 Community 3 (1–6) 8.8
 Facility 5 (3–7) 18.5
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. Italic values indicate significance of P value (P < 0.05)
  3. P value for difference by group calculated with Kruskal–Wallis test
  4. P value for difference by group calculated with Fisher’s exact
  5. aUsing sum of PHQ9 items, excluding the suicidality item
  6. bMeasured using the CIDI suicidality module [30], with 12 month recall