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Table 3 The direct, indirect, and total effects of socio-demographic and trafficking exposure characteristics on symptoms of mental health problem among Ethiopian victims of trafficking, derived from the GSEM, 2016

From: Socio-economic, trafficking exposures and mental health symptoms of human trafficking returnees in Ethiopia: using a generalized structural equation modelling

Characteristics Direct effect
(95% CI)
Indirect effect
(95% CI)
Total effect
(95% CI)
DV: violence (effect measure is OR)
 Sex
  Male 1.0   
  Female 1.84 (1.47–2.29)
 History of detention
  No 1.0   
  Yes 2.06 (1.67–2.53)
 Social support 0.86 (0.83–0.90)
 Time in trafficking 1.01 (1.005–1.015)
DV: depression (effect measure is β)
 Sex
  Male 0.0   
  Female 1.23 (0.98–1.49)
 Restricted freedom
  No 0.0   
  Yes 0.94 (0.71–1.17)
 History of detention
  No 0.0   
  Yes 0.89 (0.65–1.13)
 Social support − 0.12 (− 0.16 to − 0.08)
 Time in trafficking − 0.015 (− 0.02 to − 0.01)
DV: anxiety (effect measure is β)
 Violence
  No 0.0   
  Yes 0.46 (0.26–0.66)
 Sex
  Male 0.0 0.0 0.0
  Female 0.91 (0.63–1.19) 0.280 (0.123–0.437) 1.190 (0.884–1.497)
 Restricted freedom
  No 0.0   
  Yes 1.24 (0.97–1.51)
 History of detention
  No 0.0 0.0 0.0
  Yes 1.05 (0.77–1.33) 0.332 (0.160–0.504) 1.380 (1.074–1.687)
 Social support − 0.18 (− 0.23 to − 0.13) − 0.068 (− 0.103 to − 0.034) − 0.2464 (− 0.309 to − 0.183)
 Time in trafficking − 0.016 (− 0.02 to − 0.01) 0.005 (0.002–0.008) − 0.012 (− 0.018 to − 0.006)
DV: PTSD (effect measure is β)
 Violence
  No 0.0   
  Yes 4.00 (2.06–5.94)
 Sex
  Male 0.0 0.0 0.0
  Female 16.72 (15.58–17.87) 2.434 (0.960–3.908) 19.157 (17.727–20.586)
 Restricted freedom
  No 0.0   
  Yes 13.00 (11.23–14.77)
 History of detention
  No 0.0 0.0  
  Yes 12.74 (11.14–14.34) 2.887 (1.255–4.518) 15.627 (13.708–17.545)
 Wealth index − 1.01 (− 1.57 to − 0.45)
  1. DV dependent variable, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. The measure of association (effect measure) for violence was OR, and that of anxiety, depression and PTSD was β or beta; the βs are unstandardized coefficients