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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios for factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in women from Sodo district, Ethiopia

From: Postpartum depressive symptoms in the context of high social adversity and reproductive health threats: a population-based study

Characteristic Postpartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 5) N = 3147 Crude odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Adjusted Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (n = 3147)
Yes 385 (12.2) No 2762 (88.8)
Age (years)
 < 20 11 (10.3) 96 (89.7) Reference Reference
 20–29 191 (10.9) 1563 (89.1) 1.06 (0.56, 2.02) 2.38 (0.76, 7.39)
 30–39 175 (14.4) 1042 (85.6) 1.46 (0.77, 2.79) 1.90 (0.82, 4.38)
 40 or more 8 (11.6) 61 (88.4) 1.14 (0.43, 3.00) 1.87 (0.83, 4.20)
Not currently married 11 (21.6) 40 (78.4) 2.00 (1.01, 3.93) 1.05 (0.46, 2.40)
Rural residence 363 (13.0) 2425 (87.0) 2.93 (1.46, 3.57) 2.60 (1.58, 4.27)
No formal education 308 (13.9) 1904 (86.1) 1.80 (1.38, 2.34) 1.31 (0.96, 1.80)
Husband unhappy about baby gender 58 (15.8) 308 (84.2) 1.43 (1.04, 1.91) 1.20 (0.77, 1.85)
Perinatal complication 86 (24.9) 260 (75.1) 2.76 (2.10, 3.63) 2.43 (1.80, 3.29)
History of stillbirth 37 (22.8) 125 (77.2) 2.24 (1.52, 3.29) 1.42 (0.92, 2.19)
History of abortion 61 (20.6) 235 (79.4) 2.02 (1.49, 2.74) 1.45 (1.03, 2.04)
Parity
 Primiparous 40 (7.9) 464 (92.1) Reference Reference
 2–4 live births 149 (10.7) 1244 (89.3) 1.38 (0.96, 2.00) 1.43 (0.91, 2.23)
 Five or more 196 (15.7) 1054 (84.3) 2.15 (1.50, 3.08) 1.94 (1.18, 3.20)
Hunger in the previous month 126 (29.0) 308 (71.0) 3.87 (3.03, 4.94) 1.95 (1.43, 2.67)
Relative wealth
 Less 171 (21.4) 629 (78.6) 4.21 (2.47, 7.18) 1.84 (1.03, 3.29)
 Same 198 (9.5) 1885 (90.5) 1.62 (0.96, 2.75) 1.34 (0.77, 2.31)
 Better 16 (6.1) 248 (93.9) Reference Reference
Social support
 Poor 104 (18.3) 465 (81.7) 2.18 (1.61, 2.95) 0.89 (0.66, 1.19)
 Intermediate 187 (11.9) 1378 (88.1) 1.32 (1.02, 1.72) 0.81 (0.58, 1.14)
 Strong 94 (9.3) 919 (90.7) Reference Reference
Husband does not live in the same house 70 (18.0) 319 (82.0) 1.70 (1.28, 2.26) 1.31 (0.93, 1.83)
Husband drinks too much alcohol 95 (13.6) 602 (86.4) 1.17 (0.91, 1.50) 0.79 (0.60, 1.04)
Poor marital relationship 80 (27.5) 211 (72.5) 3.17 (2.38, 4.21) 2.13 (1.53, 2.97)
  1. Reference category
  2. The variables with statistically significant association (p < 0.05) are written in italics