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Table 3 Association of air pollution intensity and depressive symptoms and the role of chronic disease: Robustness test

From: Does chronic disease influence susceptibility to the effects of air pollution on depressive symptoms in China?

Variables Influence of SO2 emission intensity on depressive symptoms Influence of TSP emission intensity on depressive symptoms
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Association of air pollution intensity and depressive symptoms and the role of chronic disease among respondents without mental-related chronic disease (N = 10,508)
 Log of SO2 intensity 0.952*** 0.141 0.901*** 0.145
 Log of TSP intensity 0.929*** 0.115 0.875*** 0.118
 Chronic disease 0.993*** 0.113 0.991*** 0.113
 Log of SO2 intensity × chronic disease 0.256* 0.138
 Log of TSP intensity × chronic disease 0.240** 0.118
 Adjusted R2 0.123 0.139 0.123 0.140
 Wald Chi square 862*** 961*** 876*** 974***
  Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8
Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std.
Association of air pollution intensity and depressive symptoms and the role of chronic disease: Tobit model (N = 23,268)
 Log of SO2 intensity 1.122*** 0.101 0.969*** 0.090
 Log of TSP intensity 1.169*** 0.071 0.989*** 0.068
 Chronic disease 1.227*** 0.056 1.230*** 0.065
 Log of SO2 intensity × chronic disease 0.191*** 0.063
 Log of TSP intensity × chronic disease 0.248*** 0.061
 Sigma(u) 2.484*** 0.054 2.406*** 0.038 2.491*** 0.042 2.414*** 0.040
 Sigma(e) 3.663*** 0.029 3.661*** 0.024 3.653*** 0.037 3.650*** 0.030
 Log likelihood − 67,019 − 66,835 − 66,985 − 66,798
  Model 9 Model 10 Model 11 Model 12
Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std. Marginal effects Boot. Std.
Association of air pollution intensity and depressive symptoms and the role of chronic disease among respondents without mental-related chronic disease: Tobit model (N = 10,508)
 Log of SO2 intensity 0.832*** 0.122 0.788*** 0.128
 Log of TSP intensity 0.812*** 0.102 0.765*** 0.118
 Chronic disease 0.869*** 0.102 0.866*** 0.114
 Log of SO2 intensity × chronic disease 0.221** 0.091
 Log of TSP intensity × chronic disease 0.208** 0.107
 Sigma(u) 2.098*** 0.068 2.052*** 0.064 2.103*** 0.071 2.056*** 0.070
 Sigma(e) 3.440*** 0.042 3.441*** 0.050 3.434*** 0.038 3.435*** 0.048
 Log likelihood − 29,353 − 29,307 − 29,344 − 29,297
  1. Models 1–4 are estimated using the xi:xtreg-command in Stata 14, models 5–12 are estimated using the xi:xttobit-command. Decentralization was calculated using the center-command, and Marginal effects was calculated using the margins-command
  2. Control variables included individual’s demographic, socioeconomic status, health behaviors and city-level climate variables in living areas. City dummy variables were also controlled
  3. * P < 0.10; ** P < 0.05; *** P < 0.01