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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression analysis for the associations of current smoking among male and female patients among psychiatric patients (N = 1193)

From: Gender differences and risk factors for smoking among patients with various psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

  Current smoking in males (N = 543) Current smoking in females (N = 505)
Odds ratio 95% confidence interval p value Odds ratio 95% confidence interval p value
Full adjustmenta plus disorders
 Education (educated) 1.82 1.03–3.23 0.040    
 Family income (< 6000 SR) 1.90 1.26–2.86 0.002    
 BMI (non-obese) 1.49 1.00–2.22 0.053    
 Hospitalization status (inpatient) 1.72 1.16–2.56 0.007    
 Substance abuse 5.28 3.52–7.93 < 0.001 10.56 3.78–29.53 < 0.001
 Primary psychotic disorders     3.47 1.45–8.27 0.005
Full adjustmenta plus medications
 Education (educated)     3.09 0.90–10.55 0.072
 Marital status (unmarried) 1.44 0.94–2.20 0.092    
 Family income (< 6000 SR) 1.58 1.04–2.39 0.032    
 Hospitalization status (inpatient)     2.38 0.91–6.20 0.077
 Age at disease onset (≥ 25 years)     2.94 1.00–8.46 0.049
 Substance abuse 5.18 3.39–7.92 < 0.001 14.15 4.32–46.35 < 0.001
 Antipsychotic medications 1.79 1.10–2.93 0.020 4.68 0.95–22.95 0.057
  1. Data in italic means it is statistically significant (p value is < 0.05)
  2. aAdjusted for the following in males: marital status, educational level, family income, type of residential area, obesity, hospitalization status, previous psychiatric hospitalization, and substance abuse. Adjusted for the following in females: educational level, physical activity, hospitalization status, age at disease onset, previous psychiatric hospitalization, and substance abuse