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Table 2 Clinical characteristics by current smoking status among psychiatric patients (N = 1193)

From: Gender differences and risk factors for smoking among patients with various psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (N = 1193) Current smoking in males (N = 624) Current smoking in females (N = 569)
No
(N = 260)
Yes
(N = 364)
p value No
(N = 260)
Yes
(N = 364)
p value
Hospitalization status
 Inpatient 394 (33.0%) 78 (33.1%) 158 (66.9%) 0.001 142 (89.9%) 16 (10.1%) 0.041
 Outpatient 799 (67.0%) 182 (46.9%) 206 (53.1%)   389 (94.6%) 22 (5.4%)  
Age at disease onset
 Mean ± SD 28.3 ± 12.0 27.4 ± 12.1 28.1 ± 10.0 0.466 29.2 ± 13.2 24.6 ± 9.6 0.039
 < 25 years 487 (41.6%) 120 (46.3%) 139 (53.7%) 0.059 209 (91.7%) 19 (8.3%) 0.179
 ≥ 25 years 684 (58.4%) 137 (38.7%) 217 (61.3%)   312 (94.5%) 18 (5.5%)  
Disease duration
 Mean ± SD 9.7 ± 9.3 9.7 ± 9.6 9.6 ± 8.0 0.872 9.5 ± 10.0 11.9 ± 10.5 0.161
 ≤ 10 years 781 (66.8%) 175 (42.5%) 237 (57.5%) 0.593 349 (94.6%) 20 (5.4%) 0.108
 > 10 years 388 (33.2%) 80 (40.2%) 119 (59.8%)   172 (91.0%) 17 (9.0%)  
Previous psychiatric hospitalization
 No 644 (54.0%) 151 (49.2%) 156 (50.8%) < 0.001 323 (95.8%) 14 (4.2%) 0.004
 Yes 549 (46.0%) 109 (34.4%) 208 (65.6%)   208 (89.7%) 24 (10.3%)  
 Mean ± SD 3.8 ± 4.4 2.8 ± 3.3 4.1 ± 5.1 0.019 4.0 ± 4.0 3.7 ± 4.0 0.704
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 113 (9.5%) 26 (47.3%) 29 (52.7%) 0.377 56 (96.6%) 2 (3.4%) 0.411
 Hypertension 92 (7.7%) 16 (30.2%) 37 (69.8%) 0.076 37 (94.9%) 2 (5.1%) > 0.95
 Hyperthyroidism 25 (2.1%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) > 0.95 22 (95.7%) 1 (4.3%) > 0.95
 Hypothyroidism 39 (3.3%) 4 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.029 34 (97.1%) 1 (2.9%) 0.714
 Cerebrovascular accident 14 (1.2%) 3 (50.0%) 3 (50.0%) 0.697 7 (87.5%) 1 (12.5%) 0.427
 Hyperlipidemia 12 (1.0%) 3 (33.3%) 6 (66.7%) 0.742 3 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.95
 Epilepsy 12 (1.0%) 4 (66.7%) 2 (33.3%) 0.241 5 (83.3%) 1 (16.7%) 0.341
 Kidney disease 10 (0.9%) 5 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.012 5 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.95
 Asthma 8 (0.7%) 4 (66.7%) 2 (33.3%) 0.241 2 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.95
 Substance abuse 273 (24.4%) 52 (21.3%) 192 (78.7%) < 0.001 22 (75.9%) 7 (24.1%) < 0.001
Medication use
 Diabetes 83 (7.0%) 19 (45.2%) 23 (54.8%) 0.627 39 (95.1%) 2 (4.9%) > 0.95
 Hypertension 44 (3.7%) 12 (40.0%) 18 (60.0%) 0.849 14 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.614
 Hyperlipidemia 19 (1.6%) 6 (46.2%) 7 (53.8%) 0.740 6 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) > 0.95