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Table 1 Demographic characteristics by gender and current smoking status among psychiatric patients (N = 1193)

From: Gender differences and risk factors for smoking among patients with various psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (N = 1193) Current smoking in males (N = 624) Current smoking in females (N = 569)
No
(N = 260)
Yes
(N = 364)
p value No
(N = 531)
Yes
(N = 38)
p value
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD 38.0 ± 13.0 37.1 ± 14.0 37.8 ± 11.2 0.516 38.7 ± 13.8 36.5 ± 9.9 0.331
 < 40 708 (59.6%) 163 (41.5%) 230 (58.5%) 0.081 293 (93.0%) 22 (7.0%) 0.329
 40–60 420 (35.4%) 76 (38.4%) 122 (61.6%)   207 (93.2%) 15 (6.8%)  
 > 60 60 (5.1%) 18 (60.0%) 12 (40.0%)   30 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Marital status
 Married 524 (45.7%) 107 (49.8%) 108 (50.2%) < 0.001 293 (94.8%) 16 (5.2%) 0.359
 Single 504 (44.0%) 125 (37.5%) 208 (62.5%)   157 (91.8%) 14 (8.2%)  
 Divorced 106 (9.2%) 8 (19.0%) 34 (81.0%)   58 (90.6%) 6 (9.4%)  
 Widowed 12 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)   12 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Number of children 3.5 ± 3.2 3.9 ± 3.6 3.3 ± 2.9 0.180 3.5 ± 3.2 2.9 ± 3.1 0.374
Educational level
 Illiterate 251 (21.5%) 45 (55.6%) 36 (44.4%) < 0.001 165 (97.1%) 5 (2.9%) 0.010
 Secondary or less 766 (65.6%) 161 (35.8%) 289 (64.2%)   287 (90.8%) 29 (9.2%)  
 University/other 151 (12.9%) 46 (61.3%) 29 (38.7%)   74 (97.4%) 2 (2.6%)  
Working status
 Not working 832 (71.2%) 151 (42.5%) 204 (57.5%) 0.492 450 (94.3%) 27 (5.7%) 0.301
 Working 336 (28.8%) 103 (39.8%) 156 (60.2%)   70 (90.9%) 7 (9.1%)  
Family income (SR)
 ≤ 3000 344 (29.8%) 73 (38.2%) 118 (61.8%) 0.009 143 (93.5%) 10 (6.5%) 0.695
 3001–6000 372 (32.2%) 72 (35.5%) 131 (64.5%)   161 (95.3%) 8 (4.7%)  
 6001–9000 241 (20.8%) 53 (44.2%) 67 (55.8%)   112 (92.6%) 9 (7.4%)  
 > 9000 199 (17.2%) 48 (55.8%) 38 (44.2%)   104 (92.0%) 9 (8.0%)  
Residential type
 City 955 (80.4%) 225 (43.1%) 297 (56.9%) 0.004 403 (93.1%) 30 (6.9%) 0.411
 Village 206 (17.3%) 29 (30.9%) 65 (69.1%)   106 (94.6%) 6 (5.4%)  
 Desert 27 (2.3%) 6 (85.7%) 1 (14.3%)   20 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Body mass index (BMI)
 Mean ± SD 28.7 ± 7.7 28.4 ± 6.5 27.4 ± 7.1 0.096 29.8 ± 8.4 29.3 ± 8.2 0.738
 Non-obese 719 (62.1%) 161 (38.0%) 263 (62.0%) 0.010 273 (92.5%) 22 (7.5%) 0.218
 Obese 438 (37.9%) 94 (49.0%) 98 (51.0%)   234 (95.1%) 12 (4.9%)  
Physical activity
 Active 149 (12.7%) 40 (42.1%) 55 (57.9%) 0.920 46 (85.2%) 8 (14.8%) 0.017
 Not active 1028 (87.3%) 214 (41.6%) 301 (58.4%)   484 (94.3%) 29 (5.7%)