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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Systematic review: cultural adaptation and feasibility of screening for autism in non-English speaking countries

Author Study design Place Participants Informants Screening tool
1. Albores-Gallo et al. [50] Case control Mexico
Clinical/Psychiatric unit
Community/Nurseries
N = 456
18–72 months
Mean age = 4.46 years
Parents The Mexican Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MM-CHAT)
Detect nonverbal children with low function autism
2. Ben-Sasson and Carter [13] Cohort Israel
Day care
N = 471
Age M = 12.7 months
Mainly mothers The First Year Inventory (FYI)
3. Beuker et al. [51] Cross sectional Norway
Hospital
N = 12,984
18 months
Mean age: 18.53 months
Mothers The Norwegian Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
Norwegian Early Screening of Autistic Traits (ESAT)
4. Canal-Bedia et al. [53] Stage 1: Case control Spain
Extended Health Centre & Psychiatric
N-2480
18–36 months
Parents The Spanish Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) + M-Chat Phone interview
Stage 2: Cross sectional   N-2055
18–36 months
5. Carakovac et al. [56] Case control Serbian
Primary Healthcare & Psychiatric
N = 148
Mean age = 22.25–23.53 months
Parents The Serbian Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F)
6. Fombonne et al. [49] Case control Mexico
Autism Developmental Disorder Clinic
Public primary school
N = 563
4–13 years
Mean age: 8 years
Parents and teachers Spanish version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)
7. Kamio et al. [46] Cohort Japan
Routine check-up local
Health Centre
N = 2516
18 months–3 years
Mean age: 18.6–19.2
Parents The Japanese version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT JV)
8. Kamio et al. [47] Cohort Japan
Routine check-up local
Health Centre
N = 1851
18 months–3 years
Mean age: 18.7 months
Parents + trained interviewers The Japanese verson of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT JV) + Follow up Interview (FI)
9. Kara et al. [57] Cross sectional Turkey
Well-child Paediatric
N = 191
18–36 months
Mean age: 27.15
Parents The Turkish version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) + FI
10. Kara et al. [57] Case control Turkey
Well child Paediatric
Psychiatric-autism centre
N = 618
18–36 months
Mean age: 27.15
Nurses and psychologists The Turkish version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
11. Kondolot et al. [55] Cross sectional Turkey
Family Health Centres
N = 4000
18–30 months
Mean age: 23–24 months
Trained interviewers The Turkish version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
12. Mohamed et al. [43] Cross sectional Egypt
Primary Health
Centres
N = 5546
1–2.9 years
Mean age: 1.7
Parents An Arabic validated version of Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
13. Mohammadian et al. [45] Case control Iran
Hospital nursery
Psychiatric Hospital
Autism Centre
N = 100
Mean age: 27.1
29.62 months
Mothers The Iranian version of the
Quantitative Checklist for or Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT)
14. Nygren et al. [54] Cohort Sweden
Child Health Centre
2.5 year check-up
N = 3999
Mean age: 1.5 years
Mothers + trained nurses The Sweden version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) +FI + Joint Attention Observation (JA-OBS)
15. Perera et al. [53] Cross sectional Sri Lanka
Primary Health Centre
N = 374
18–24 months
Mothers Red Flag criteria + the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
16. Perera et al. [19] Case control Sri Lanka
Paediatric Hospital
N = 105
18–48 months
Mean age: 36–40 months
Mothers The Pictorial Autism Assessment Schedule (PAAS)
17. Samadi and McConkey [7] Cohort Iran
Population based Kindergarten and Pre-school Centres
N = 2941
2–5 years
Parents Hiva + follow-up interview (FI) + the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
18. Seif Eldin et al. [42] Case control 9 Arab countries
Not reported
N = 228
18–36 months
Parents The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
19. Seung et al. [48] Cohort Korea
Day care, public HC,
Hospitals, paediatric clinic
N = 2300
16–36 months
Parents + first author for FI The Korean Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (K-M-CHAT)-2 + Phone FI
20. Wong et al. [44] Case control Hong Kong
Maternal and child
Health clinics
Psychiatric
N = 212
13–86 months
Parents + trained investigator Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT-23)
  1. + Data reported, − data not reported