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Table 5 Factors associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in multivariate logistic regression models

From: Utilization of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine and mental health among patients with chronic diseases in primary health care settings in Cambodia

Variables in final modelsa Anxiety score (< 8 vs. ≥ 8) Depression score (< 8 vs. ≥ 8)
AOR (95% CI) P value AOR (95% CI) P value
Age
 21–30    Reference  
 31–40    0.71 (0.18–2.78) 0.62
 41–50    2.43 (1.34–4.43) 0.004
 51–60    2.37 (1.30–4.32) 0.005
 > 60    2.26 (1.00–5.13) 0.05
Gender  
 Male Reference    
 Female 2.17 (1.61–2.93) <0.001   
Marital status
 Never married    Reference  
 Married    4.96 (2.65–9.28) < 0.001
 Separated/divorced    3.05 (1.01–9.24) 0.04
 Widowed    11.84 (3.54–39.63) < 0.001
Formal education completed
 No schooling Reference    
 1–5 years 0.79 (0.58–1.07) 0.13   
 6–9 years 0.65 (0.46–0.91) 0.01   
 10–12 years 0.75 (0.49–1.17) 0.21   
 Higher education 0.53 (0.28–1.01) 0.05   
Using an herbalist
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 1.65 (1.17–2.31) 0.004 3.68 (1.61–8.43) 0.002
Self-help practices—visualization (imagery)
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 2.35 (1.62–3.41) <0.001 5.02 (2.34–10.75) <0.001
Self-help practices—praying for own health
 No Reference   Reference  
 Yes 1.81 (1.33–2.48) <0.001 4.25 (2.11–8.57) <0.001
Using vitamins/supplements
 No    Reference  
 Yes    0.50 (0.33–0.85) 0.001
Satisfaction with your own health
 Dissatisfied Reference    
 Neutral 0.14 (0.02–1.09) 0.06   
 Satisfied 0.11 (0.01–0.81) 0.03   
Satisfaction with yourself  
 Dissatisfied Reference    
 Neutral 0.19 (0.04–0.89) 0.04   
 Satisfied 0.23 (0.05–1.06) 0.06   
Having enough energy for your everyday life
 Not at all/a little Reference   Reference  
 Moderately 0.92 (0.68–1.24) 0.58 0.18 (0.08–0.35) <0.001
 Mostly/completely 0.57 (0.39–0.82) 0.002 0.04 (0.02–0.08) <0.001
Having enough money to meet your needs
 Not at all/a little Reference   Reference  
 Moderately 0.55 (0.41–0.73) <0.001 0.45 (0.30–0.69) 0.002
 Mostly/completely 0.61 (0.14–2.74) 0.52 0.32 (0.05–1.99) 0.22
Satisfaction with your current living place conditions
 Dissatisfied Reference    
 Neutral 0.50 (0.29–0.85) 0.01   
 Satisfied 0.58 (0.35–0.96) 0.04   
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aVariables in the table were the ones that remained statistically associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in the final multivariate logistic regression model after several steps of model fitting