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Table 2 Comparison of use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in past 12 months among chronic disease patients with and without anxiety and depressive symptoms

From: Utilization of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine and mental health among patients with chronic diseases in primary health care settings in Cambodia

  Total anxiety score Total depression score
< 8 ≥ 8 P value* < 8 ≥ 8 P value*
Herbalist    0.001    < 0.001
 No 397 (32.3) 832 (67.7)   199 (16.2) 1030 (83.8)  
 Yes 56 (18.7) 243 (81.3)   8 (2.7) 291 (97.3)  
Spiritual healer    0.64    0.67
 No 452 (29.7) 1071 (70.3)   206 (13.5) 1317 (86.5)  
 Yes 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0)   1 (20.0) 4 (80.0)  
Acupuncturist    0.14    0.76
 No 437 (30.0) 1018 (70.0)   198 (13.6) 1357 (86.4)  
 Yes 16 (21.9) 57 (78.1)   9 (12.3) 64 (87.7)  
Chiropractor    0.91    0.15
 No 436 (29.6) 1036 (70.4)   203 (13.8) 1269 (86.2)  
 Yes 17 (30.4) 39 (64.6)   4 (7.1) 52 (92.9)  
Yoga practitioner    0.32    0.06
 No 444 (29.5) 1061 (70.5)   207 (13.8) 1298 (86.2)  
 Yes 9 (39.1) 14 (60.9)   0 (0.0) 23 (100.0)  
Massage therapist    0.62    0.67
 No 441 (29.6) 1051 (70.4)   203 (13.6) 1289 (97.6)  
 Yes 12 (33.3) 24 (66.7)   4 (11.1) 32 (88.9)  
Herbal medicine use    0.10    0.72
 No 267 (31.3) 585 (68.7)   113 (13.3) 739 (86.7)  
 Yes 186 (27.5) 490 (72.5)   94 (13.9) 582 (86.1)  
Using vitamins/supplements    0.68    < 0.001
 No 347 (29.4) 834 (70.6)   103 (8.7) 1078 (91.3)  
 Yes 106 (30.5) 241 (69.6)   104 (30.0) 243 (70.0)  
Using homeopathic remedies    0.86    < 0.001
 No 437 (29.6) 1039 (70.4)   186 (12.6) 1290 (87.4)  
 Yes 16 (30.8) 36 (69.2)   21 (40.4) 31 (59.6)  
Self-help practices—meditation    0.18    0.34
 No 419 (30.1) 971 (69.9)   192 (13.8) 1198 (86.2)  
 Yes 34 (24.6) 104 (75.4)   15 (10.9) 123 (89.1)  
Self-help practices—yoga    0.79    0.07
 No 426 (29.7) 1007 (70.3)   200 (14.0) 1233 (86.0)  
 Yes 27 (28.4) 68 (71.6)   7 (7.4) 88 (92.6)  
Self-help practices—qigong (energy healing)    0.21    0.39
 No 446 (29.5) 1066 (70.5)   206 (13.6) 1306 (86.4)  
 Yes 7 (43.8) 9 (56.2)   1 (6.3) 15 (93.7)  
Self-help practices—relaxation techniques    0.90    0.91
 No 372 (29.7) 880 (70.3)   169 (13.5) 1083 (86.5)  
 Yes 81 (29.3) 195 (70.7)   38 (13.8) 238 (86.2)  
Self-help practices—visualization (imagery)    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 378 (33.1) 764 (66.9)   190 (16.6) 952 (83.4)  
 Yes 75 (19.4) 311 (80.6)   17 (4.4) 369 (95.6)  
Self-help practices—traditional healing ceremony    0.85    0.11
 No 444 (29.7) 1052 (70.3)   206 (13.8) 1290 (86.2)  
 Yes 9 (28.1) 23 (71.9)   1 (3.1) 31 (96.9)  
Self-help practices—praying for own health    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 346 (35.0) 642 (65.0)   184 (18.6) 804 (81.4)  
 Yes 107 (19.8) 443 (80.2)   23 (4.3) 517 (95.7)  
Walk or use a bicycle for at least 10 min    0.28    < 0.001
 No 286 (30.7) 647 (69.3)   75 (8.0) 858 (92.0)  
 Yes 167 (28.1) 428 (71.9)   132 (22.2) 463 (77.8)  
Do vigorous intensity sports or leisure activities    0.01    < 0.001
 No 415 (29.1) 1013 (70.9)   165 (11.6) 1363 (88.4)  
 Yes 38 (41.8) 53 (58.2)   40 (44.0) 51 (56.0)  
Do moderate intensity sports or leisure activities    0.04    < 0.001
 No 366 (28.6) 912 (71.4)   124 (9.7) 1154 (90.3)  
 Yes 87 (34.8) 163 (65.2)   83 (33.2) 167 (66.8)  
  1. Values are number of cases (%)
  2. * Chi square test (or Fisher’s exact test when a cell count was smaller than five) was used