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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the sample population

From: Italian regional health service costs for diagnosis and 1-year treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents

Characteristics Total sample (N = 1887) With ADHD (n = 1276) Without ADHD (n = 611) p*
Age M (SD); median 9.3 (2.5); 9 9.1 (2.4); 9 9.7 (2.5); 9 <0.0001
 5–11, n (%) 1506 (80) 1038 (81) 468 (77) 0.0161
 12–17, n (%) 381 (20) 238 (19) 143 (23)
Male: female 1597:290 1099:177 498:113 0.0092
Only child, n (%) 453 (24) 328 (26) 125 (20) 0.0116
Born abroad, n (%) 99 (5) 76 (6) 23 (4) 0.0453
Adopted, n (%) 63 (3) 54 (4) 9 (1) 0.0018
School variables, n (%)
 Grade
  Primary 1417 (75) 980 (77) 437 (72) 0.0139
  Middle 465 (25) 293 (23) 172 (28)
  Repeaters 99 (5) 61 (5) 38 (6) ns
  Support teacher 142 (8) 123 (10) 19 (3) <0.0001
Parent/family variables, n (%)
 High school graduate
  Mother 1070 (64) 694 (63) 376 (66) ns
  Father 871 (53) 562 (52) 309 (55) ns
  Employed
  Mother 1235 (72) 840 (74) 395 (67) 0.0028
  Father 1584 (95) 1046 (95) 538 (94) ns
  Family history of ADHD 375 (20) 293 (23) 82 (13) <0.0001
Anamnestic data, n (%)
 Pregnancy
  Cesarean section 465 (26) 333 (28) 132 (23) 0.0207
  Preterm (<37 weeks) 168 (9) 120 (10) 48 (8) ns
  Low weight (<2500 g) 149 (9) 107 (9) 42 (7) ns
  Motor delay 85 (5) 60 (5) 25 (4) ns
  Language delay 366 (20) 266 (22) 100 (17) 0.0167
Psychiatric disorders, n (%)
 One or more 1189 (63) 843 (66) 346 (57) <0.0001
Other chronic medical conditions, n (%)
 One or more 163 (9) 110 (9) 53 (9) ns
  1. * t test for continuous and χ2 for categorical variables