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Table 5 Results of MANOVA testing effects of country and gender on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, chronotype, depression, stress, social phobia, test anxiety and self-efficacy

From: Sleep disturbances and mental strain in university students: results from an online survey in Luxembourg and Germany

Variable Pillai’s trace   Significance Effect size
Country 0.003 F (8, 2471) = 0.91 p = .553 η2 = .003
Gender 0.029 F (8, 2471) = 9.29 p = .000* η2 = .029
Country* gender 0.004 F (8, 2471) = 1.39 p = .265 η2 = .004
  1. * p < 0.05