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Table 4 Means, standard deviations and significance level for the components of the PSQI

From: Sleep disturbances and mental strain in university students: results from an online survey in Luxembourg and Germany

  Scale Women Men Significance level
Mdn M (SD) Mdn M (SD)
(1) Sleep quality 1   1   U = 812,926; z = 1.817; p = .069
(2) Sleep-onset latency
In minutes
2 25.48 (28.53) 2 22.52 (21.27) U = 797,021, z = 1.285; p = .199
(3) Sleep duration
In hours
0 7.10 (1.10) 0 7.02 (1.07) U = 773,050; z = -.233; p = .816
(4) Habitual sleep efficiency
In percent
0 87.35 (10.32) 0 88.81 (9.65) U = 792,965; z = 1.190; p = .234
(5) Sleep disturbance 1   1   U = 880,629; z = 7.144; p = .000*
(6) Use of sleep medication 0   0   U = 786,964; z = .432; p = .666
(7) Daytime dysfunction 1   1   U = 812,662; z = 2.510; p = .012*
  1. Mdn median; M mean; SD standard deviation; * p ≤ 0.05