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Table 3 Gender differences in mental health

From: Sleep disturbances and mental strain in university students: results from an online survey in Luxembourg and Germany

Variable Female university students
M (SD)
Male university students
M (SD)
Significancea
PSQI—sleep quality for all students 7.33 (3.77) 6.94 (3.47) F (1, 2593) = 6.17; p = .013*
ESS—daytime sleepi-ness for all students 8.59 (3.75) 7.63 (3.59) F (1, 2573) = 33.73; p = .000**
MEQ—chronotype for all students 46.85 (9.38) 44.22 (9.82) F (1, 2781) = 38.34; p = .000**
PHQ-9—depression for all students 7.54 (4.80) 6.56 (4.81) F (1, 2632) = 21.02; p = .000**
PHQ—stress for all students 5.39 (3.22) 4.62 (2.84) F (1, 2613) = 52.23; p = .000**
SIAS—social phobia for all students 23.62 (10.59) 23.96 (10.82) F (1, 2573) = 0.47; p = .495
PAF—test-anxiety for all students 44.90 (6.71) 43.71 (9.82) F (1, 2693) = 19.12; p = .000**
SWE—self-efficacy for all students 28.19 (4.76) 29.18 (5.21) F (1, 2593) = 21.99; p = .000**
  1. aAccording to MANOVA; * p ≤ .05; ** p < .01