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Table 2 Univariate linear regression test examining the association between biopsychosocial variables and PHQ-9 score of patients

From: Comorbidity of depression and diabetes: an application of biopsychosocial model

Variables (reference category) β (95% CI) p value
Current age −0.03 (−0.08, 0.02) 0.21
Age at diagnosis −0.05 (−0.1, −0.001) 0.04
Female gender (male) 1.4 (0.4, 2.4) 0.01
Addis Ababa residence (outside Addis Ababa) −0.5 (−2.0, 1.0) 0.54
Monthly family income (ETB) −0.001 (−0.001, −0.0002) <0.001
Marital status (married)
 Divorced 2.2 (0.7, 3.7) 0.01
 Widowed 0.3 (−1.1, 1.6) 0.70
Religion (orthodox christian)
 Muslim −1.4 (−3.1, 0.3) 0.11
 Other religion −0.4 (−2.0, 1.3) 0.67
Ethnicity (others)
 Amhara −0.2 (−1.2, 0.8) 0.67
 Oromo 1.0 (−0.4, 2.4) 0.17
Educational status (no formal education)
 Primary school (1–8) 1.8 (0.7, 3.0) 0.002
 Secondary school (9–12) −0.7 (−1.9, 0.5) 0.23
 College/university −1.4 (−2.4, −0.3) 0.01
Occupation (others)
 Civil servant −0.7 (−2.0, 0.6) 0.28
 House wife 1.7 (0.4, 3.0) 0.01
 Private worker −0.8 (−2.2, 0.6) 0.26
 Pensioned −0.7 (−2.0, 0.5) 0.23
 No employment 1.1 (−0.7, 2.2) 0.10
Waist circumference 0.01 (−0.4, 0.1) 0.74
Duration of diabetes 0.03 (−0.03, 0.1) 0.35
Duration of diabetes treatment 0.03 (−0.04, 0.1) 0.36
Fasting blood glucose 0.01 (−0.001, 0.01) 0.09
Number of co-morbidity 0.6 (0.02, 1.1) 0.04
Number of prescribed medication administration per day 0.2 (−0.05, 0.4) 0.13
Number of diabetic complication 0.5 (0.1, 0.9) 0.02
Body mass index 0.1 (0.03, 0.3) 0.04
Combined insulin injection (single insulin injection) 1.0 (−1.9, 0.4) 0.42
Insulin injection plus oral hypoglycemic (single insulin injection) 0.3 (−1.3, 1.9) 0.72
Oral hypoglycemic agent (single insulin injection) −0.9 (−2.0, 0.1) 0.08
Cardiovascular disease 0.5 (−0.5, 1.5) 0.33
Respiratory disease 0.5 (−1.6, 2.5) 0.66
Renal disease 0.6 (−1.7, 2.9) 0.62
Neurologic disease 1.8 (−2.3, 5.9) 0.39
Others comorbidity 0.7 (−0.4, 1.8) 0.22
Diabetic retinopathy 1.0 (0.02, 2.0) 0.04
Diabetic nephropathy 2.0 (0.8, 3.1) 0.001
Diabetic neuropathy 1.1 (0.03, 2.2) 0.04
Sexual dysfunction −1.0 (−2.2, 0.1) 0.08
Physical disability 1.2 (0.2, 2.2) 0.02
Poor social support 3.1 (2.1, 4.1) <0.001
Doing physical activity −1.5 (−2.7, −0.3) 0.01
Fear of diabetic complication and death (no perception at all) 1.6 (0.6, 2.7) 0.003
Not fearing diabetic complication and death (no perception at all) −2.0 (−3.1, −0.9) <0.001
High health care cost (no perception at all) 0.4 (−0.7, 1.5) 0.50
Not high health care cost (no perception at all) −0.7 (−2.0, 0.5) 0.26
Negative life event in the last 6 months 2.0 (0.9, 2.9) <0.001
  1. β regression coefficient; CI confidence interval