Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of patients PHQ-9 score and fasting blood glucose by biopsychosocial characteristics of patients

From: Comorbidity of depression and diabetes: an application of biopsychosocial model

Variable Categories n (%) PHQ-9 score mean (± SD) Fasting blood sugar mean (±SD)
Gender, female 140 (53.0) 6.0 (4.77) 181.30 (79.94)
Residence, Addis Ababa 228 (86.4) 5.07 (4.35) 166.13 (71.78)
Marital status Married 183 (69.3) 4.68 (4.17) 164.4 (70.67)
Divorced 24 (9.1) 7.3 (5.75) 188.94 (94.31)
Widowed 48 (18.2) 5.92 (4.73) 162.04 (66.48)
Religion Orthodox christian 213 (80.7) 5.48 (4.74) 167.64 (72.76)
Muslim 24 (9.1) 3.71 (3.14) 170.04 (92.81)
Other religion 5 (1.9) 4.67 (4.04) 159.63 (61.18)
Ethnicity Amhara 151 (57.2) 5.23 (4.71) 168.71 (74.05)
Oromo 40 (15.2) 5.8 (4.54) 165.65 (77.42)
Others 19 (7.2) 4.93 (4.33) 164.36 (70.94)
Educational status No formal education 51 (19.4) 6.1 (5.17) 179.57 (81.79)
Grade 1–8 16 (6.1) 6.63 (4.53) 171.11 (78.94)
Grade 9–12 59 (22.3) 4.42 (4.08) 165.66 (63.11)
College/university 89 (33.7) 4.26 (4.25) 157.81 (70.59)
Occupation Civil servant 47 (17.8) 4.74 (4.71) 172.51 (59.36)
House wife 47 (17.8) 6.77 (5.26) 183.45 (71.56)
Private worker 38 (14.4) 4.29 (3.84) 162.95 (93.59)
Pensioned 58 (22.0) 4.69 (4.48) 142.0 (56.18)
No employment 48 (18.2) 5.85 (4.14) 172.9 (80.15)
Others 16 (6.1) 4.81 (4.53) 178.54 (79.98)
Diabetes treatment Single insulin injection 108 (40.9) 5.78 (4.99) 162.44 (83.22)
Combined insulin injection 12 (4.5) 5.92 (5.14) 218.17 (104.57)
Insulin plus oral hypoglycemic 30 (11.4) 5.23 (3.61) 167.67 (58.89)
Oral hypoglycemic 114 (43.2) 4.65 (4.29) 165.85 (61.25)
Comorbid disease (N = 180) Cardiovascular disease 141 (78.3) 5.57 (4.68) 162.81 (68.43)
Respiratory disease 17 (9.4) 5.41 (4.43) 151.53 (66.82)
Renal disease 13 (7.2) 5.54 (4.31) 158.46 (58.13)
Neurologic disease 4 (2.2) 6.75 (6.13) 131.5 (35.48)
Others comorbidity 80 (44.4) 6.04 (5.09) 174.59 (72.01)
Diabetic complication (N = 201) Diabetic retinopathy 140 (69.7) 5.79 (4.67) 166.76 (70.51)
Diabetic nephropathy 69 (34.3) 7.09 (5.16) 176.43 (72.36)
Diabetic neuropathy 83 (41.3) 6.14 (4.59) 172.41 (81.17)
Sexual dysfunction 69 (34.3) 4.70 (4.77) 162.29 (69.88)
Physical disability 132 (50.0) 5.80 (4.68) 169.61 (75.71)
Poor social support 95 (37.4) 7.44 (5.03) 167.47 (82.95)
Negative life event 88 (34.6) 6.64 (4.93) 168.75 (84.38)
Physical activity 55 (22%) 3.80 (3.53) 165.98 (82.69)
Perceived fear of complication and death 178 (70.1) 5.78 (4.74) 167.24 (71.88)
Perceived high health care cost of diabetes 192 (75.6) 5.35 (4.75) 168.15 (75.95)
  1. SD standard deviation