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Table 3 Cross-tabulation of socio-demographic characteristics and place patients first sought psychiatric treatment

From: Pathways to psychiatric care for mental disorders: a retrospective study of patients seeking mental health services at a public psychiatric facility in Ghana

Place patients first sought psychiatric treatment—n(%)
Socio-demographic characteristics Psychiatric hospital Non-psychiatric hospital χ 2 (df) p value
Sex
Male 28 (50.0) 28 (50.0) 0.01 (1) 0.919
Female 25 (49.0) 26 (51.0)   
Age (years)
<20 3 (5.4) 2 (3.9)   
20–29 14 (25.0) 19 (37.3)   
30–39 16 (28.6) 13 (25.5) Exact 0.734
40–49 12 (21.4) 7 (13.7)   
50–59 5 (8.9) 6 (11.8)   
≥60 6 (10.7) 4 (7.8)   
Educational level
No formal education 7 (12.5) 7 (13.7)   
Basic educationa 22 (39.3) 20 (39.2) 0.06 (3) 0.997
Secondary educationb 14 (25.0) 12 (23.5)   
Tertiary 13 (23.2) 12 (23.5)   
Marital status
Single/never married 28 (50.0) 34 (66.7)   
Married 16 (28.6) 10 (19.6) Exact 0.344
Widowed 5 (8.9) 1 (2.0)   
Divorced 4 (7.1) 4 (7.8)   
Separated 3 (5.4) 2 (3.9)   
Religion
Christian 46 (82.1) 46 (90.2) 1.44 (1) 0.231
Others 10 (17.9) 5 (9.8)   
Occupation
Unemployed 28 (50.0) 15 (29.4)   
Self-employed 22 (39.2) 22 (43.1) 6.91 (2) 0.033*
Public servants 6 (10.7) 14 (27.5)   
Distance (in km) (mean ± SD)c 0.17 ± 0.07 0.16 ± 0.06 1.35 (105)d 0.1773
Ethnicity
Akan 20 (35.7) 20 (39.2) 0.14 (1) 0.708
others 36 (64.3) 31 (60.8)   
  1. χ 2 Chi square test statistic; df degrees of freedom; numbers in parentheses indicate column percentages; Exact estimates from Fishers Exact test
  2. * p < 0 0.05
  3. aPrimary/junior high
  4. bSenior high/vocational
  5. c \(\left( {\frac{1}{{\sqrt {\text{distance}} }}} \right)\) transformation
  6. dEstimates the studentized t-test statistic