Skip to main content

Table 1 A presentation of themes, categories, and quotations included in each category

From: Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study

   Children from low-income families Children from high-income families
Theme Category Sample quotation
Living environment Living space for daily activities “I need to share a bedroom with my elder sister and I have to do my homework on the bed or in the corridor. My back is painful sometimes.”
“I have to perform many of my daily activities, such as playing and studying, on a bed.”
“Although my home is not big, I do not have to share a bedroom or reading desk with my elder sister.”
“I enjoy studying in my own bedroom. I also like my home environment. My mother always tidies the house and keeps it clean and safe for me to play and study.”
Physical health Physical activity “My parents ask me not to go out as it costs money. Therefore, I usually spend time watching television or sleeping in leisure time.”
“I did not participate in any training course and I seldom go out, but I will exercise during physical education class.”
“During the weekend, they may take me to the countryside for outdoor activities.”
“My parents always encourage me to participate in sport activities in leisure time and they told me that regular exercise is very important to me.”
Usual diet “I always have sausages, frozen meat and canned foods in dinner because they are cheap.”
“My mother usually asks me to skip breakfast at the end of the month due to a lack of housekeeping money.”
“My parents seldom buy me canned or preserved food. They said that this food contains a lot of salt which is not good for my health.”
“My mother usually makes me a sandwich for breakfast. Therefore, I always feel full in the early morning.”
Social life Material resources “I often wear the clothes of my elder brother. However, they don’t fit me. I have to roll up their sleeves before I put them on.”
“My parents seldom buy me new toys. I often get old toys from my neighbors.”
“My parents often buy me clothes and sneakers from brand name stores.”
“My mother just donated some of my clothes that are I wore for a few times to Po Leung Kuk (a NGO). She said my closet is crowded.”
Opportunity for children to take part in various kinds of activities “I am not able to attend school picnics or join any extracurricular activity. My mother tells me that all of these activities are too expensive.”
“My parents said that transportation costs in Hong Kong are high. Therefore, I usually stay at home on weekends.”
“My parents always help me apply for different extracurricular activities. They said these activities can help broaden my horizons and enhance my competitiveness.”
“I already went to Disneyland four times this year because I did well in my exams.”
Ability to function at school Stationery and educational resources “I always use the textbooks of my elder sister. Some of the content has not been updated.”
“I do not have a computer at home. I have to go to public libraries to do online projects.”
My parents often buy me new textbooks and school uniforms before the semester starts.”
“My father bought a computer for me. Therefore, I have my own computer at home to complete online assignments from school.”