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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratio (with 95 % confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms by levels of cognitive social capital for women and men in Sweden and Ukraine

From: Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine

Variables Sweden Ukraine
Women Men Women Men
Social capital
 Trust in the national government/parliament
  High 1* 1* 1*** 1***
  Moderate 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.06 (0.86–1.30) 0.98 (0.62–1.54) 1.56 (0.70–3.49)
  Low 1.25 (0.98–1.60) 1.27 (0.99–1.63) 1.20 (0.78–1.87) 1.69 (0.79–3.63)
  No opinion 1.07 (0.89–1.30) 0.97 (0.73–1.30)   
 Feeling of safety
  High 1*** 1*** 1*** 1***
  Moderate 1.52 (1.24–1.87) 3.00 (2.10–4.28) 1.04 (0.65–1.65) 0.93 (0.52–1.67)
  Low 1.97 (1.41–2.76) 3.91 (2.19–6.97) 1.72 (1.13–2.62) 1.17 (0.69–1.98)
  Never alone 1.95 (1.50–2.54) 3.21 (1.83–5.63)   
Other variables
 Age
  18–29 1*** 1*** 1*** 1***
  30–59 0.63 (0.53–0.75) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 2.81 (1.85–4.26) 2.01 (0.94–4.30)
  60+ 0.27 (0.21–0.34) 0.49 (0.36–0.66) 8.66 (5.36–14.0) 6.15 (2.89–13.1)
 Education     
  Short 1*** 1*** 1*** 1***
  Medium 1.07 (0.86–1.34) 1.22 (0.94–1.58) 0.65 (0.40–1.06) 0.52 (0.27–0.99)
  Long 1.22 (1.00–1.50) 1.24 (0.96–1.61) 0.47 (0.28–0.79) 0.65 (0.33–1.29)
 Marital status
  Living without a partner 1*** 1*** 1*** 1***
  Living with partner 0.71 (0.62–0.73) 0.62 (0.51–0.75) 0.81 (0.60–1.08) 0.98 (0.58–1.66)
 Small children
  No 1*** 1*** 1** 1**
  Yes 1.26 (1.03–1.54) 1.53 (1.20–1.96) 1.50 (0.95–2.37) 1.41 (0.57–3.49)
 Smoking
  No 1*** 1*** 1*** 1***
  Yes 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 1.51 (1.21–1.90) 1.03 (0.59–1.79) 0.89 (0.56–1.43)
 Alcohol ever
  No 1 1 1** 1**
  Yes 0.95 (0.77–1.1) 0.89 (0.65–1.20) 1.46 (1.05–2.02) 0.81 (0.45–1.46)
  1. The asterisks denote significant level of Chi Square test of p < 0.05 (*) or p < 0.01 (**) or p < 0.001 (***)