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Table 2 Characteristics of the 1184 surviving and 993 deceased patients with schizophrenia under care at Taipei Veterans’ General Hospital Yuli Branch in Taiwan from 1998 to 2008

From: Mortality among patients with schizophrenia and vocational rehabilitation program services under Taiwan’s psychiatric care reform

Characteristics Decedents Survivors P
N % N %
Demography
 Age, Mean ± SDa 69.22 ± 10.46 48.79 ± 15.38 <0.001
 Male 934 94.1 844 71.3 <0.001
 Marital status
  Unmarried 833 83.9 1047 88.4 <0.001
  Married 126 12.7 51 4.3
  Widow 7 0.7 64 5.4
  Divorced 27 2.7 22 1.9
 Social welfareb
  Veterans 912 91.8 573 48.4 <0.001
  Relatives of veterans 62 6.2 438 37.0
  Low-income 11 1.1 103 8.7
  General 8 0.8 70 5.9
 Census registration
  Hospitalc 749 75.4 319 26.9 <0.001
  Non-Hospital 244 24.6 865 73.1
Psychiatric history
 Hospitalization duration in the initial follow-up (years), Median, 25–75 percentilea 2.8, 2.0–17.9 2.8, 2.0–6.4 <0.001
 Duration of mental illness, Median, 25–75 percentilea 9.9, 5.7–22.3 13.9, 13.0–17.4 <0.001
 Other combined psychiatric diagnoses 29 2.9 51 4.3 0.087
 Participation in sheltered or supported employment 50 5.0 276 23.3 <0.001
Physical comorbidity (ICD9) 804 81.0 697 58.9 <0.001
 Diseases of the respiratory system (460–519) 455 45.8 220 18.6 <0.001
 Diseases of the digestive system (520–579) 328 33.0 297 25.1 <0.001
 Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions (780–799) 223 22.5 200 16.9 0.001
 Diseases of the genitourinary system (580–629) 215 21.7 115 9.7 <0.001
 Infectious and parasitic disease (001-139) 194 19.5 101 8.5 <0.001
 Diseases of the circulatory system (390–459) 178 17.8 104 8.8 <0.001
 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (680–709) 178 17.9 178 15.0 0.069
 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and immunity disorders (240–279) 107 10.8 92 7.8 0.015
 Neoplasms (140–239) 78 7.9 28 2.4 <0.001
 Diseases of the nervous and sensory organs (320–389) 69 7.0 44 3.7 0.001
 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (710–739) 57 5.7 62 5.2 0.607
 Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (280–289) 39 3.9 25 2.1 0.012
  1. ICD 9 International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition
  2. aMann-Whitney U test
  3. bThe classifications are based on social welfare resources in Taiwan
  4. cThose with no family or who refused to use the same registration census as their family in Taiwan