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Table 3 Comparison of median scores of items on WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-PILOT2 between symptomatic and asymptomatic people with HIV in Jimma (n = 100)

From: Adaptation and validation of the short version WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia

Scale/domain and facets Asymptomatic HIV Symptomatic HIV Z score P value
Median (IQR) Median (IQR)
General QoL 3 (1) 2 (1) 3.31 <0.001
General health satisfaction 4 (1) 3 (2) 5.80 <0.001
Physical domain
 Pain and discomfort 5 (1) 3 (2) 5.51 <0.001
 Symptoms of HIV 5 (2) 3 (3) 5.11 <0.001
 Energy and fatigue 4 (2) 3 (1) 5.48 <0.001
 Sleep and rest 4 (2) 3 (2) 4.59 <0.001
Independence domain
 Dependence on medication 4.5 (2) 3 (2) 4.03 <0.001
 Mobility 5 (1) 3 (2) 5.69 <0.001
 Activities of living 4 (1) 2.5 (1) 6.15 <0.001
 Work capacity 4 (2) 2 (1) 5.931 <0.001
Psychological domain
 Positive feelings 4 (2) 3 (2) 4.26 <0.001
 Self-esteem 5 (1) 3 (2) 5.28 <0.001
 Negative feelings 5 (1) 4 (1) 3.30 <0.001
Spirituality domain
 Spiritual 5 (1) 3 (1) 5.58 <0.001
 Forgiveness 5 (2) 4 (4) 2.54 <0.05
 Fear of the future 5 (2) 3 (3) 3.02 <0.01
 Death and dying 5 (0) 3.5 (3) 3.42 <0.001
Social domain
 Disclosure of HIV status 5 (2) 4 (3) 0.44 0.661
 Ability to support one’s family 3 (3) 2 (3) 3.19 <0.01
 Social inclusion 4 (1) 3 (2) 3.17 <0.01
 Personal relationships 4 (2) 3 (2) 3.53 <0.001
 Social support 4 (2) 3 (2) 2.96 <0.01
 Community relationships 4 (1) 3 (1) 3.73 <0.001
Environmental domain
 Physical safety and security 3 (4) 3.5 (3) −0.87 0.384
 Physical environment 4 (2) 3 (2) 3.13 <0.01
 Worry about food 4 (2) 3 (3) 0.97 0.335
 Opportunities for recreation and leisure 4 (2) 3 (3) 2.60 <0.01
 Home environment 4 (2) 3 (2) 2.73 <0.01
 Access to health and social care 4.5 (1) 4 (2) 2.96 <0.01
 Transport 3 (1) 3 (1) 2.86 <0.01
 Access to adequate food 4 (2) 3 (2) 3.59 <0.001
  1. New items are italicized