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Table 1 Overview of depression measures

From: Selection of depression measures for use among Vietnamese populations in primary care settings: a scoping review

Measure Original author/citation Context of initial development and use Composition Time to administer
Beck depression inventory (BDI) Beck et al. [53]. Updated by Beck et al. [54] Derived from clinical observations about the attitudes and symptoms displayed frequently by depressed psychiatric patients. Used widely in English-speaking populations Self-administered or administered by trained interviewers. 21 symptoms of depression are rated from 0–3 in terms of intensity. Suggested cut-offs: minimal depression <10; mild to moderate depression 10–18; moderate to severe depression 19–29; severe depression 30–63 5–10 min
Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) Radloff et al. [55]; revised by Eaton et al. [56] Designed for epidemiological studies of depressive symptoms in the general population Self-administered. Asks patients to identify current (this week) symptoms. 20 items, rated from 0 to 4 to indicate frequency of symptoms. Scored by summing ratings. Suggested cut-off: >16 10–20 min
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) WHO (1990). Updated by World Mental Health Survey [48] Developed for use in low-cost, low-infrastructure settings Self or interviewer administered yes/no items with 30 day recall period. 20 items. Suggested cut-off: 7/8. Algorithms for scoring provided only to trained administrators 5 min
Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) Lovibond and Lovibond [57] Used to screen for depression, anxiety and stress in a community setting 42 items or 21 item short form. Three 7 question sub-scales for depression, anxiety and stress. 4 possible responses varying from 0 (did not apply to me at all) to 3 (applied to me very much or most of the time). For depression sub-scale cutoffs = mild: 5–6, moderate: 7–10, severe: 11–13, extremely severe: >14 5–10 min
Four Measures of Mental Health (FMoMH) Beiser and Fleming [58] Developed in Canada for use with South Asian refugee populations 50 items, 17 for depression, 16 for somatization, 13 for panic, and 4 for well-being. Study suggests cut-offs should vary by age and population Not available
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) Goldberg [59] Developed for use in primary care and non-clinical settings Several versions: 60, 30, 28 and 12 items. GHQ-28 most frequently used. Four subscales: somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Scales not independent of one another. Items are scored from 0 to 3 using alternative binary scoring, with a score of >4 considered indicative of psychological distress for the GHQ-28 5 min
Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)/Indochinese-HSCL Parloff, Kelman, and Frank [60] revised 25-item version for use in primary care: Hesbacher et al. [61]. Indochinese version: Mollica et al. [62] Originally developed as screening instrument for use in primary care and non-clinical settings. Was developed for use with Vietnamese refugees in the US 25 questions: 10 on anxiety subscale and 15 on depression subscale. Separate scores for anxiety, depression and total. There are 4 response categories, rated from 1 to 4. Maximum scores of 4 with 1.75 in clinical range Not available
Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale (PVPS) Phan, Steel, and Silove [40] Developed in Australia for use in Vietnamese diaspora 26 item depression subscale, a 13 item anxiety subscale, and a 14 item somatization subscale, with a total of 53 items. The depression scale includes two subscales: a 15 item affective subscale and an 11 item psycho-vegetative subscale. Items are scored from 1 to 3 based on frequency of occurrence. Cut-off for depression sub-scale = 1.85 Not available
SRQ-20 WHO [63] Developed by WHO for use in low and middle income countries. Has been translated into many languages Self or interviewer administered with 20 yes or no items with 30 day recall period. Yes responses are scored 1 and no responses are scored 0, with a maximum score of 20. Optimal cut-off considered to be 7/8 5–10 min
Vietnamese Depression Scale (VDS) Kinzie [51] Developed for use with Vietnamese refugees in the US 15 items with maximum score of 34. 6 items are culturally specific for Vietnamese population. Uses 3- and 4-point Likert scales. Optimal cut-off = >13 Not available