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Table 2 Study rates of mental distress among incarcerated individuals in Ghana’s Prison Service by Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and by selected demographic variables

From: Assessment of mental distress among prison inmates in Ghana’s correctional system: a cross-sectional study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale

  Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10)  
  0 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 50  
Variables % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) Fisher’s exact
Age      
  <30 (RC) 18.4 (7) 15.8 (6) 36.8 (14) 29.0 (11) 0.45
  30-59 15.7 (8) 23.5 (12) 29.4 (15) 31.4 (16)  
  60-101 27.3 (3) 0.0 (0) 54.6 (6) 18.2 (2)  
Sex      
  Male 18.0 (16) 19.1 (17) 33.7 (30) 29.2 (26) 0.89
  Female 18.2 (2) 9.1 (1) 45.5 (5) 27.3 (3)  
Education      
  Primary 17.1 (4) 13.0 (3) 21.7 (5) 47.8 (11)  
  Secondary 20.0 (5) 12.0 (3) 44.0 (11) 24.0 (6) 0.39
  College 50.0 (1) 0.0 (0) 50.0 (1) 0.0 (0)  
  None 16.0 (8) 24.0 (12) 36.0 (18) 24.0 (12)  
Ethnicity      
  Southern tribes 26.1 (6) 17.4 (4) 39.1 (9) 17.4 (4) 0.79
  Mole-Dagomba 13.2 (5) 18.4 (7) 36.8 (14) 31.6 (12)  
  Other–North tribe 18.0 (7) 18.0 (7) 30.8 (12) 33.3 (13)  
Religion      
  Moslem 7.4 (4) 24.1 (13) 33.3 (18) 35.2 (19) 0.01
  Christian 30.4 (14) 10.9 (5) 37.0 (17) 21.7 (10)  
NHIS      
  Yes 21.5 (14) 16.9 (11) 35.4 (23) 26.2 (17) 0.60
  No 11.4 (4) 20.0 (7) 34.3 (12) 34.3 (12)  
  1. Note: α = 0.05; Kessler score: 0–19 = Likely to be well; 20–24 = Mild mental disorder.
  2. 25–29 = Moderate mental disorder; and 30–50 = Severe mental disorder. Source: Kessler et al. [11].