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Table 4 Intervention functions for a program supporting pharmacists in providing mental health care in community pharmacies

From: A theory-informed approach to mental health care capacity building for pharmacists

Intervention function Potential model of behaviour addressed[12],[14] Examples of current and potential strategies related to community-pharmacy based mental health care
Education Psychological ability – capability Education and training day on mental health including wellness and illness.
  Reflective – motivation  
Training Psychological ability – capability Interaction during education and training day facilitated by experts with case-based learning and simulated patients focusing on communication and management approaches for mental illness.
  Physical ability – capability  
Persuasion Reflective – motivation Sending pharmacists literature with statistics regarding prevalence of conditions, various services that provide benefits, and outcomes achieved with pharmacist interventions.
  Automatic – motivation  
  Use of people with lived experience of mental illness as partners in the project.
  Sending group emails with congratulatory messages to any pharmacists who did educational outreach sessions.
Incentivisation Reflective – motivation Using pay for performance incentives for training other pharmacists regarding the program and tools.
  Automatic – motivation  
  Community of practice inclusive of resource sharing (e.g., websites) created with group of pharmacists.
  Recognition of successes and activities through community of practice email.
Coercion Reflective motivation Retraction or withholding of money for lack of training of other pharmacists.
  Automatic motivation  
Restriction Physical environment - opportunity Rules and restriction on the kinds of services and interventions eligible for pharmacists to perform in the program.
  Social environment – opportunity  
Environmental restructuring Automatic – motivation Using posters in the pharmacies to advertise mental health-related services.
  Physical environment – opportunity  
   Using education and training regarding principles of the program to encourage and promote a stigma-free pharmacy culture.
  Social environment – opportunity  
   Use prompts or cues with the help of computerized systems to guide pharmacists in patient monitoring (e.g., run report of all patients taking antipsychotics and use manual or computerized prompt for pharmacists to ask patients regarding blood work or smoking status).
Modeling Automatic – motivation Using video clips or simulated patients demonstrating pharmacists’ assessments and monitoring of patients with mental illnesses.
  Psychological ability – capability  
Enablement Psychological ability – capability Providing pharmacists with access to community supports through knowledgeable people with lived experience in communities and establishing linkages in a community of practice for advice and guidance on patient-related questions.
  Physical ability – capability Booking appointments in the pharmacies for pharmacists to spend more time with people with lived experience of mental illness.
  Physical environment – opportunity  
  Social environment – opportunity  
  Automatic – motivation