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Table 1 Characteristics of children with the Internalizing Problems (IP) or with the Externalizing Problems (EP) compared to controls

From: Associations between maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood

  Controls without IP (N = 959) IP (N = 44)   Controls vs. IP Controls without EP (N = 973) EP (N = 30)   Controls vs. EP
    UOR d (95% CI) p    UOR d (95% CI) p
Age, mean (SD) 9.04 (0.70) 9.20 (0.59) -1.49a   0.137b   9.03 (0.72) 0.14a   0.885b
Male (n(%)) 560 (57.9) 25 (56.8) 0.96 (0.52-1.76) -0.10 (-0.25-0.05) 0.890 561 (57.7) 19 (63.3) 1.27 (0.60-2.70) 0.06 (-0.13-0.25) 0.536
Region (n(%))           
  Urban 404 (41.8) 17 (38.6) ref    413 (42.1) 8 (26.7) ref   
  Industrial 381 (39.4) 19 (43.2) 1.17 (0.64-2.15) 0.04 (-0.10-0.18) 0.616 384 (39.1) 16 (53.3) 1.78 (0.86-3.68) 0.14 (-0.04-0.32) 0.122
  Rural 182 (18.8) 8 (18.2) 1.04 (0.48-2.28) 0.01 (-0.18-0.20) 0.915 184 (18.8) 6 (20.0) 0.92 (0.37-2.29) -0.02 (-0.24-0.20) 0.864
Family income (n(%))           
  Middle or upper 601 (62.2) 26 (59.1) ref    596 (62.6) 13 (43.4) ref   
  Lower 366 (37.8) 18 (40.9) 1.14 (0.62-2.10) 0.03 (-0.12-0.18) 0.683 356 (37.4) 17 (56.7) 2.19 (1.05-4.56) 0.19 (0.01-0.37) 0.036*
Paternal education (n(%))           
  High school degree or lower 514 (53.2) 28 (64.3) 1.59 (0.83-3.02) 0.11 (-0.04-0.26) 0.161 523 (53.3) 20 (65.5) 1.67 (0.77-3.62) 0.12 (-0.07-0.31) 0.198
  College degree or higher 453 (46.8) 16 (35.7) ref    458 (46.7) 10 (34.5) ref   
Maternal education (n(%))           
  High school degree or lower 647 (66.9) 31 (71.4) 1.23 (0.62-2.44) 0.05 (-0.12-0.22) 0.550 656 (66.9) 23 (75.9) 1.55 (0.66-3.68) 0.10 (-0.11-0.31) 0.316
  College degree or higher 320 (33.1) 13 (28.6) ref    325 (33.1) 7 (24.1) ref   
  1. at-statistics; bresult of independent t-test, others are the results of binary logistic regression analyses; UOR, unadjusted odd ratio; ref, reference group; *p <0.05.