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Table 2 Direct cost for previous one month

From: Excess cost of non-remission among outpatients with major depressive disorder

Direct cost for previous one month New MDD Remitted MDD Non-remitted MDD p Statistics Testa)
(N = 128) (N = 100) (N = 109)
Outpatient cost       
 Number of visits to clinics 2.17 ± 1.39(2.00) 2.34 ± 1.51(2.00) 2.91 ± 2.27(2.00) 0.0043b) F = 5.53 a = b < c
 Cost of an outpatient treatment($) 77.30 ± 74.43(56.39) 65.94 ± 78.26(50.91) 67.07 ± 58.17(49.09) N.S.   
Transportation expenses       
 Transportation expense for treated MDD 11.18 ± 15.17(7.27) 13.62 ± 31.47(4.18) 15.77 ± 19.09(9.09) 0.0045c) χ2 = 10.79 a = b < c
 Time spent for transportation (hour) 1.62 ± 1.61(1.00) 1.66 ± 2.01(1.00) 1.91 ± 2.28(1.33) N.S.   
Supplementary therapy       
 Number of subjects 9 9 12    
 Average monthly number of supplementary therapy 6.11 ± 8.10(2.00) 9.33 ± 9.99(3.00) 12.25 ± 11.94(7.50) N.S.   
 Average cost of supplementary therapy($) 64.95 ± 108.05(18.18) 51.31 ± 68.00(9.09) 56.35 ± 86.79(9.45) N.S.   
 Type of supplementary therapy, n(%)       
  Health supplements 3(33.3) 1(11.1) 2(16.7) N.S.   
  Chinese medicine, acupuncture 1(11.1) 1(11.1) 3(25.0)    
  Yoga, meditation, massage 4(44.4) 5(55.6) 7(58.3)    
  Physical therapy, exercise 1(11.1) 1(11.1) 0(0.0)    
  Etc. 0(0.0) 1(11.1) 0(0.0)    
Direct medical cost d) 90.59 ± 84.77(59.09) 76.36 ± 81.47(54.55) 90.36 ± 85.45(61.99) N.S.   
Direct non-medical cost e) 21.10 ± 55.11(9.09) 25.49 ± 52.99(5.64) 44.79 ± 126.55(14.55) 0.0015 c) χ2 = 12.99 a = b < c
  1. a)Tukey’s Post-hoc test.
  2. b)Difference between groups (ANOVA).
  3. c)Difference between groups (Kruskal-Wallis test).
  4. d)Direct cost = number of outpatient treatment × cost of an outpatient treatment.
  5. e)Direct non-medical cost = transportation expense for treated MDD × number of outpatient treatment during the past month + average cost of supplementary therapy × average monthly number of supplementary therapy.
  6. Note: Denominator of percentage is the number of subjects in the column.
  7. Categorical variables are displayed as the number of subjects (percentage of subjects).
  8. Continuous variables are displayed as mean ± standard deviation (median).