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Table 1 Operationalisation of structural characteristics

From: Structural characteristics of specialised living units for people with dementia: a cross-sectional study in German nursing homes

Variable

Description of the assessed item/calculation of the variable

Level

Environmental characteristics

  

Size

Number of beds in the LU

1

Single rooms

Number of single rooms in the LU

1

Building specific for residents with dementia

The LU was built to host residents with dementia.

2

Architectural segregation from other units

The LU is located in a separate building or floor or segregated by a closed door.

2

Exit control

The living unit is protected by exit controls.

2

Permission to bring own furniture

Residents are allowed to bring own furniture.

2

Furnishing of public rooms

 

2

▪ is solely functional

Functional furniture is provided by the institution and designed for a special use.

▪ functional and individual

Individual furniture is purchased from private people.

▪ solely individual

Accessible outdoor area

An accessible outdoor area is defined as a garden, terrace or balcony that can be entered directly from the LU. If residents can go out alone, it is designed without any barriers.

2

▪ residents can go out alone

▪ residents can go out with attendance

▪ no outdoor area

Preparation of meals in the LU

Meals are prepared in the kitchen of the LU.

2

Cooking lunch

Lunch is cooked in the kitchen of the LU.

2

Meal serving system

AMeal serving system for the majority of the residents

2

▪ Tray system

AAll meals are already prepared on a tray when they arrive on the LU.

2

▪ Dish system

AAll meals are portioned out by the staff individually for each resident on a plate.

▪ Buffet system

AAll meals are self-service on a buffet.

▪ Homelike table system

AAll meals are served homelike on the table.

▪ Mixed system

Different systems are used for breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Staff ratios

  

Residents-per-registered nurse

Number of residents on the day of data collection/number of registered nurses (defined as nurses with a minimum education of three years)

1

Residents-per-certified nursing assistant

Number of residents on the day of data collection/number of certified nursing assistants (defined as nurses with a minimum education of one year)

1

Residents-per-nursing assistants

Number of residents on the day of data collection/number of nursing assistants (defined as nurses without any education)

1

Residents-per-service staff member

Number of residents on the day of data collection/number of service workers

1

Staff assignment and qualification

  

▪ Constant assignment (nurses)

Nurses are working exclusively in one designated LU.

2

▪ Constant assignment (service staff)

Service workers are working exclusively in one designated LU.

2

▪ Continuous presence of a registered nurse

A registered nurse is always present during day shift in the LU.

2

▪ Special qualification of head nurse in psychogeriatric care

The head nurse of the LU has a special qualification in psychogeriatric care.

2

  1. AAll meals include breakfast, lunch and dinner.
  2. 1 Numeric; 2 Dichotomous.