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Table 2 History of mental health care integration within the Indian health system*

From: The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history

Time periods Date Health system and political developments Mental health developments
PRE-INDEPENDENCE early 20th century 1935 Act: provinces autonomy for Health activities Growth of mental hospitals, first general hospital psychiatric unit (GHPU)
  1946 Bhore Committee Report  
1. POST- INDEPENDENCE Aug 1947 Independence of India declared  
  1950s 1st Five Year Plan (FYP) 1950s: Psychotropic medications developed
1954: All India Institute of Mental Health (AIIMH) established, Bangalore
  1956 Second FYP. Rs. 225 crore (5%) for health Late 1950s: concept of ‘family ward’ (Amritsar and CMC); nurse training at AIIMH
  1961 3rd FYP. Rs. 342 (4.3%) for health; Mudaliar Committee Report 1960s: More GHPUs and specialists; psychiatric social worker training in AIIMH
  1969 4th FYP. Rs. 840 crores for health  
  1973 Medical personnel forced to work in rural areas; Multi Purpose Workers introduced; 1974: 5th FYP. Rs. 796 crores health 1974:NIMHANS replaces AIIMH and the government mental hospital
2. PILOTING MODELS FOR MH CARE EXTENSION 1975   WHO report on organisation of mental health services; Community Psychiatry Unit created in NIMHANS
  1977 Community health workers and Dais 1975-1981: WHO: ”strategies for extending mental health care” (including Raipur Rani)
  1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata 1975-1986: Sakalwara – NIMHANS model. Other similar projects: Delhi, Jaipur, Hyderabad
  1980 6th FYP  
3. NMHP- INITIAL STEPS 1982 National Health Policy National Mental Health Programme initiated. Budget: 10 million rupees for the first 5 years
  1985 7th FYP Bellary programme (1985–1990)
  1987   Mental Health Act
4. POLITICS, POWER and NGOS 1990s   Increasing number of NGOs. E.g.: 1993: Banyan; 1996: Ashadeep, Sangath, GASS; 1999: Bapu Trust
  1992 8th FYP Community mental health featured on health budget
  1994   Persons with Disability Act
5. DMHP/HUMAN RIGHTS 1996   DMHP implemented. Budget: 270 million rupees;
  1997 9th FYP  
  1998   The National Human Rights Commission Report
  2001   Erwadi disaster (Tamil Nadu)
6. RESTRATEGISED NMHP 2002 10th FYP; National Health Policy Re-strategised NMHP. Budget: 1.9 billion rupees
  2004 National Rural Health Mission. ASHA worker created.  
  2005   UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities
7. REINVIGORATED DMHP 2007-2011 11th FYP 2007: ‘Reinvigorated’ NMHP. Budget: 10 billion rupees
  1. *based on findings of interviews and references: [1620].