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Table 1 Distribution of depression score with CES-DC (19,20) scale by select socio-demographic and risk factors among institutionalized orphaned children in Hyderabad

From: Depression among AIDS-orphaned children higher than among other orphaned children in southern India

Variable Categories Children orphaned by AIDS (COA) Children orphaned by other reasons (COO)
N = 199 Mean Median N = 198 Mean Median
Age* 12 to 14 years 186 34.5 37.0 118 18.4 17.5
15 to 16 years 13 35.8 41.0 80 23.7 23.0
Sex† Boy 127 33.2 34.0 80 21.2 22.0
Girl 72 37.1 43.5 118 20.1 18.5
Type of orphan‡ Maternal orphan 29 36.9 44.0 31 20.9 21.0
Paternal orphan 114 34.9 39.0 91 19.5 20.0
Double orphan 56 32.9 34.5 66 21.6 21.0
Do not know 0 0 0 10 21.8 20.0
Education§ Never been to school/Class 1-5 131 33.7 35.0 44 22.4 22.0
Class 6-12 68 36.3 40.0 154 20.0 19.0
Religion¶ Hindu 60 32.1 36.5 140 19.7 19.0
Christian 136 35.5 37.5 43 22.8 24.0
Others 3 45.0 52.0 12 20.8 20.5
Duration of stay at the orphanage** <= 2 years 82 33.8 34.0 99 21.6 22.0
3 - 4 years 81 35.9 40.0 36 18.7 18.5
> 4 years 36 33.6 35.5 63 20.0 17.0
Ever bullied or ill-treated by friend/relatives†† Yes 100 37.9 40.5 53 25.0 24.0
No/Cannot say 99 31.2 33.0 145 18.9 18.0
Ever abused at orphanage‡‡ Yes 38 36.3 37.0 46 27.1 27.5
No 161 34.2 39.0 152 18.6 17.0
Ever witnessed fights between parents§§ Yes 100 36.1 40.0 71 24.9 24.0
No 70 32.8 34.0 75 17.2 15.0
Don’t recall/Don’t know 29 33.8 37.0 52 19.4 18.5
Ever experienced discrimination¶¶ Always/many times 25 44.2 46.0 15 26.2 28.0
Sometimes 50 36.0 40.0 16 27.3 27.0
Never 124 32.1 34.0 166 19.4 19.0
  1. *p = 0.749 for COA; p = 0.001 for COO.
  2. † p = 0.066 for COA; p = 0.467 for COO.
  3. ‡ p = 0.470 for COA; p = 0.636 for COO.
  4. § p = 0.241 for COA; p = 0.194 for COO.
  5. ¶ p = 0.150 for COA; p = 0.227 for COO.
  6. **p = 0.113 for COA; p = 0.325 for COO.
  7. †† p = 0.001 for COA; p < 0.001 for COO.
  8. ‡‡ p = 0.419 for COA; p < 0.001 for COO.
  9. §§ p = 0.318 for COA; p < 0.001 for COO.
  10. ¶¶ p < 0.001 for COA; p = 0.001 for COO.
  11. ANOVA test for significance is reported.