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Table 1 Description of Ghanaian adults (18 and over) by psychological distress and socioeconomic characteristics (N = 5,391)

From: Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity

  Overall * Employed§ Unemployed seeking work§  
  N = 5,391 N = 4,855 (91.1%) N = 536 (8.9%) P-valuea
Age 42.5 (0.24) 42.9 (0.26) 38.7 (0.82) <0.001
Sex     0.580
 Female 2897 90.9% 9.1%  
 Male 2494 91.3% 8.7%  
Marital Status     <0.001
 Married 3945 91.6% 8.4%  
 Separated/Divorced 470 93.4% 6.6%  
 Widowed 355 94.7% 5.3%  
 Never Married 621 83.0% 17.0%  
Education     <0.001
 None 1875 85.7% 14.3%  
 Primary or Less 796 93.5% 6.5%  
 Middle 1981 94.1% 5.9%  
 Secondary and Above 739 93.6% 6.4%  
Region     <0.001
 Western 562 83.6% 16.4%  
 Central 540 96.0% 4.0%  
 Greater Accra 388 94.6% 5.4%  
 Volta 672 96.6% 3.4%  
 Eastern 668 96.7% 3.3%  
 Ashanti 869 95.7% 4.3%  
 Brong Ahafo 454 95.5% 4.5%  
 Northern 850 81.8% 18.2%  
 Upper East 251 60.2% 39.8%  
 Upper West 137 87.0% 13.0%  
General Health     0.238
 Very Healthy 4003 91.4% 8.6%  
 Somewhat Healthy 987 91.1% 8.9%  
 Unhealthy 401 87.8% 12.2%  
Religion     <0.001
 Christian 3656 93.0% 7.0%  
 Muslim 848 87.3% 12.7%  
 Traditional 544 83.0% 17.0%  
 No Religion 343 90.7% 9.3%  
Wealth Quintiles     <0.001
 Lowest 20% 951 79.1% 20.9%  
 21–40% 1225 85.5% 14.5%  
 41–60% 1047 94.1% 5.9%  
 61–80% 1052 97.4% 2.6%  
 Highest 20% 1116 97.7% 2.3%  
Alcohol Consumption     0.315
 None (0 days/week) 2,023 90.2% 9.8%  
 Some (1–4 days/week) 905 90.8% 9.2%  
 High (5–7 days/week) 403 93.5% 6.5%  
 No Response 2,032 91.7% 8.3%  
Psychological Distress     <0.001
 Mild/No Distress 4274 93.8% 6.2%  
 Moderate 701 84.6% 15.4%  
 Severe 416 71.3% 28.7%  
  1. *Overall values are reported in unweighted Ns.
  2. §Values are reported in weighted row percent for categorical variables and weighted mean (standard error) for continuous variables.
  3. aP-values are given for weighted chi-square test for categorical variables and T-test for continuous variables.