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Table 2 Included studies for literature review

From: A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam

  Authors Reference Aim Population and setting Methods
1. Nguyen N-L D, Hunt D D, Scott C S Screening for depression in a primary care setting in Vietnam. (2005) The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 193, n. 2 To assess depression in patients who were already diagnosed with depression by a Vietnamese psychiatrist and in patients presenting at a primary care clinic. 115 clinically depressed patients at the Center for Mental health and 177 patients at a primary care clinic in Ho Chi Minh City. Depression assessed using the Vietnamese Depression Scale.
2. Steel z, Silvoe D, Giao N M, Phan T T B, Chey T, Whelan A, Bauman A, Bryant R A International and indigenous diagnoses of mental disorder among Vietnamese living in Vietnam and Australia. (2009) The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 194, pp: 326-333 To investigate the prevalence of Western and indigenously defined mental disorders among Vietnamese living in Vietnam and Australia, comparing data with an Australian-born sample. Population survey among 3039 Vietnamese living in Mekong Delta region, 1161 Vietnamese living in Australia and 7961 Australian-born, living in Australia. Western defined mental disorders diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Vietnamese indigenously derived Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale. Assessment of functional impairment and service use.
3. Phan T, Steel Z, Silvoe D An ethnographically derived measure of anxiety, depression and somatization: The Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale. (2004) Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 41, pp: 200-232 To develop and validate the Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale Vietnamese literature on traditional medicine, folk-medicines, novels, folktales, fairytales, poetry, reviews of traditions, cultures, customs and religions. 180 Vietnamese refugees and immigrants living in Sydney Identification of idioms of distress through Vietnamese literature and ethnography for scale development, Scale validation through estimates of Internal Consistency, confirmatory factor analysis and multitrait-multimeasure analysis.
4. Fry A J, Nguyen T Culture and the self: implications for the perception of depression by Australian and Vietnamese nursing students. (1996) Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 23, pp:1147-1154 To test certain theoretical assumptions of self and depression by measuring perceptions of depression. 94 australian nursing students from Australia, and 93 Vietnamese nursing students from Ho Chi Minh City. Survey with a vignette case of depression in a family context and a list of depression symptoms without a context. Participants were asked to rate the two depression cases with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 25
5. Groleau D and Kirmayer L J Sociosomatic theory in Vietnamese immigrants’ narratives of distress. (2004) Anthropology & Medicine, vol. 11, pp:117-133 To explore reasons for the under-utilization of mental health services by Vietnamese immigrants to Canada. 18 Vietnamese immigrants in Canada, identified through a community survey because they reported four or more somatic, emotional, or medically unexplained symptoms and had not used any mental health service for their problem. Ethnographic interviews using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview.
6. Hinton D H, Pham T, Tran M, Safren A S, Otto M W, Pollack M H CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. (2004) Journal of Trauma and Stress, vol. 17, pp: 429-433 To examine the acceptability, acceptability and therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted CBT for Vietnamese refugees 12 Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks. Treated in two separate cohorts of six, with staggered treatment onset, outcomes measured with Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Anxiety sensitivity Index, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 anxiety and depression subscales.
7. Dinh T Q, Yamada A M, Yee B W K A culturally relevant conceptualization of depression: an empirical examination of the factorial structure of the Vietnamese Depression Scale. (2009) International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 55: 496 To empirically derive the factorial structure of the Vietnamese Depression Scale to support its use as a culturally responsive depression screening tool in community samples of Vietnamese adults. Community sample of 180 Vietnamese refugee adults in the USA Vietnamese Depression Scale interviews conducted to examine its factorial structure, reliability and associations with recognized socio-demographic correlates.
8. Cheung F and Lin K-M Neurasthenia, depression and somatoform disorder in a Chinese-Vietnamese woman immigrant. (1997) Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 21, pp:247-258 To provide an in-depth ethnographic case study of a Chinese-Vietnamese immigrants illness history and cultural formulation. 28-year-old Chinese-Vietnamese female, immigrant in the USA, enrolled through a neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome study Ethnographic case study interview.
9. Niemi M, Falkenberg T, Nguyen M T, Patel V, Faxelid E The social contexts of depression during motherhood: a study of Explanatory Models in Vietnam. (2010) Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 124, pp: 29-37 To elicit illness explanatory models of depression and postnatal depression from mothers and health workers who meet mothers during their pregnancy and/or postpartum period. Nine mothers and nine health workers from a semi-rural community in north Vietnam. Illness explanatory model interviews using a case vignette of depression and postnatal depression.
10. Tran TD, Tran T, La B, Lee D, Rosenthal D, Fisher J. Screening for perinatal common mental disorders in women in the north of Vietnam: a comparison of three psychometric instruments (2011) Journal of Affective Disorders vol. 133, pp: 281-293 To establish the validity of three widely used psychometric screening instruments in detecting CMDs in women in northern Viet Nam. A community-based representative cohort of 364 Vietnamese women in the perinatal period, in the north of Vietnam. Translated and culturally verified versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire 12 items, Zung's Self-rated Anxiety Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV were administered. Calculation of area under ROC Curve and Cronbach’s alpha.
11. Buchwald D, Manson S M, Breneman D L, Dinges N G, Keane E M, Beals J, Kinzie J D Screening for depression among newly arrived Vietnamese refugees in primary care setting (1995) Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 163, pp: 341-345 To describe the use of the Vietnamese Depression Scale to examine the nature and extent of depression among adult Vietnamese refugees seen in a primary health care clinics within two months of their immigrating to the United States. 1998 ethnic Vietnamese refugees 16 years of age or older, recruited from ten refugee health clinics The Vietnamese Depression Scale was incorporated into the clinic intake procedure, which also elicited information about socioeconomic background, medical history and reason(s) for the visit.
12. Hinton W L, Du N, Chen Y-C J, Tran C G, Newman T B, Lu F G Screening for major depression in Vietnamese refugees: A valisdation and comparison of two instruments in a health screening population (1994) Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 9, pp: 202-206 1) Using standard cut-offs, to determine the accuracy of two instruments for major depression in a nonpsychiatric clinic population of Vietnamese refugees; 2) to examine the utility of other cut-offs; 3) to compare the overall accuracies of the two instruments using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis 206 newly arrived (6 months or less) Vietnamese refugees between the ages 18 and 65 years undergoing routine, mandatory, health screening at the San Francisco General Hospital Refugee Medical Clinic All participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, administered by a psychiatrist, and completed the Indochinese Hopkins Symptom Checklist Depression Subscale, the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Vietnamese Depression Scale.
13. Kinzie J D, Manson S M, Vinh D T, LAn N T T, Anh B, Pho T N Development and validation of a Vietnamese-language depression rating scale (1982) Americal Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 139, pp: 1276-1281 1)Describe the development and specific items of a Vietnamese-language depression scale derived from the Vietnamese culture; and 2) report the results of the validation of this scale; and 3) discuss the implications of this scale for further clinical research and the cross-cultural study of depression. Development of scale by research team including a psychiatrist who had lived in Vietnam, an anthropologist and four Vietnamese mental health workers. Pretest done with 20 Vietnamese adults. Validation done by comparing result in two groups; a psychiatric clinic index group meeting DSM-III-R criteria for major depression from the Oregon Health Sciences University Indochinese Psychiatric Clinic (N = 21) and a matched community sample (N=44). The Vietnamese Depression Scale was developed by the first group, pretested with the second group for clarity and consistency, and then tested with the third group.
14. Tran T D, Tran T, Fisher J Validation of three psychometric instruments for screening for perinatal common mental disorders in men in the north of Vietnam (2012) Journal of Affective Disorders vol. 136, pp: 104-109 To validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Zung Self-rated Anxiety Scale (Zung SAS) and the General Health Questionnaire 12 Items (GHQ 12) for use with men whose partners were pregnant or had recently given birth 231 eligible men whose partner was at least 28 weeks pregnant or were mothers of 4-6 week old babies and registered at selected commune health stations in Ha Nam and Hanoi EPDS, Zung-SAS and GHQ-12 scores collected through structured clinical interview were compared against the Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis 1 diagnoses of depression, generalized anxiety and panic disorder, administered by a psychiatrist.
15. Guindon G E, Boyle M H Using anchoring vignettes to assess the comparability of self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness of depression in France and Vietnam (2012) International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 21, pp: 29-40 To estimate the extent to which mental disorders such as depression are influenced by health expectations could have important implications for our understanding of these conditions as well as their role in accounting for disability Probability sampling used to select one respondent per household in France (3490) and Vietnam (N=1001). Substudy with vignettes done with subgroup of French (N=251) and Vietnamese (N=856) participants Frequency of depressive disorders examined by sex with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). Vignette based questions about mental health were posed to the subgroups, where they were asked to rate their own health status as extreme, severe, moderate, mild and none in relation to the vignettes. The results of the two assessment procedures were compared.
16. Fisher J R W, Tran H T T, Tran T Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vitenam (2007) International Journal of Mental Health Systems, vol. 1:3 To investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant women 61 women in their second half of pregnancy recruited from the National Obstetric Hospital in Hanoi. Only women who appeared confident, more advantaged and well-educated and therefore more willing to discuss sexuality were approached, as the study subsidiary aim was to discuss sexual beliefs and behaviours. The self-report questionnaires Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Intimate Bonds Measure (IBM) were completed by all participants.
17. Fisher J R W, Morrow M M, Ngoc N T N and Anh L T H Prevalence, nature, severity and correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms in Vietnam (2004) International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 111, pp: 1353-1360 To examine depressive symptomatology in women after childbirth in Ho Chi Minh City 506 women were recruited consecutively in the postnatal wards of Hung Vuong Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital and maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Center, and invited to take part in the study at the first clinic visit. Individual structured interviews about health and social circumstances, including the EPDS were administered during clinic visits
18. Fisher J, Tran T, Tran T D, Dwyer T, Nguyen T, Casey G J, Simpson J A, Hanieh S, Biggs B-A Prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of common mental disorders in early and late pregnancy in Vietnamese women: A prospective population-based study (2012) Journal of Affective Disorders, e-pub ahead of print To establish the prevalence and psychosocial risk-factors for clinically significant symptoms of CMD in early and late pregnancy in women in rural Vietnam. A population-based sample of 497 women, recruited from all pregnant women in randomly selected communes in Ha Nam province, were surveyed in early and late pregnancy. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Coincidental life adversity was assessed with a single question, and the quality of intimate partner relationship was assessed with the Intimate-Bond Measure –Vietnam (IBM-V)
19. Huong, N T, Anh L V, Dunne M Validity and reliability of two scales measuring depression and anxiety for community research use among youth in the community (2010) Journal of Public Health (Vietnamese), vol. 7, pp: 25-31 To validate the self-reported CES-D (The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale) among Vietnamese adolescents and; to develop and conduct a preliminary validation of a self-reported short form anxiety scale for adolescents. 299 school students aged 13-18 years in Chi Linh and Dong Da districts in Hanoi Both scales had good internal consistency (anxiety scale: α = 0.82 and CES-D: α = 0.87), and have good psychometric properties among the Vietnaese adolescent population studied.
20. Thanh N N, Linh L C Validity and reliability of the depression scale for the youth and adolescent and related factors in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province (2010) Journal of Public Health (Vietnamese), vol. 16, pp: 33-41 To develop and measure the validity and internal consistency reliability of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) in seven towns/communes of Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province, and; to identify the relationship between sociodemographic variables and the mean score obtained on the depression scale. The CES-D was translated and adapted for the Chi Linh district context. The revised scale was then tested among 12,447 youths and adolescents (age 10-24 years) The scales internal consistency (cronbach's alpha) was 0.82. All tested socio demographic variables (gender, marital status, age, education level and urban or rural residence) were significantly associated with the total mean score of depression.