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Table 3 Adjusted association of different variables with depression episodes, Ethiopia 2003

From: The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

Factors OR adjusted for age & sex (95%CI) OR adjusted for all variables (95%CI) P-value
Residence
 Rural 1.4 (1.06-1.96) 1.1 (0.81-1.61) 0.495
 Urban 1 1  
Sex
 Male 1 1  
 Female 1.3 (1.02-1.53) 0.9 (0.68-1.19) 0.458
Age group
 18–30 1 1  
 31–44 1.7 (1.28-2.18) 1.1 (0.85-1.52) 0.403
 45–54 2.2 (1.62-3.01) 1.3 (0.98-1.79) 0.182
 55–64 3.2 (2.34-4.46) 1.4 (1.01-2.14) 0.042
 65–74 4.4 (3.09-6.39) 1.8 (1.21-2.81) 0.005
 75+ 6.0 ( 3.78-9.65) 2.2 (1.28-3.78) 0.004
Educational status
 Illiterate 1.5 (0.87-2.78) 0.9 (0.43-1.73) 0.675
 1-4 grade 0.9 (0.46-1.81) 0.6. (0.31-1.35) 0.249
 5-8 grade 1.1 (0.54-2.10) 0.8 (0.39-1.62) 0.521
 9-12 grade 1.2 (0.58-2.33) 1.0 (0.49-2.09) 0.969
 Higher 1 1  
Marital status
 Never married 1 1  
 Currently married 1.9 (1.31-2.99) 1.5 (0.95-2.33) 0.081
 Separated 1.4 (0.57-3.65) 1.2 (0.45-3.15) 0.733
 Divorced 3.0 (1.73-5.28) 2.0 (1.12-3.72) 0.023
 Widowed 3.3 (1.79-5.64) 2.4 (1.39-4.28) 0.002
Current job
 Employed 1 1  
 Unemployed 0.85 (0.68-1.07) 0.98 (0.77-1.26) 0.895
Income level
 ≤ 500 birr 1 1  
 501–999 birr 1.3 (0.87-1.97) 1.4 (0.89-2.10) 0.155
 ≥ 1000 birr 1.6 (0.81-3.22) 1.9 (0.90-3.91) 0.092
Number of diagnosed chronic diseases
 None 1 1  
 One 2.8 (2.20-3.50) 2.6 (2.03-3.25) < 0.001
 2+ 4.9 (3.79-6.55) 4.2 (3.18-5.57) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption
 Life time abstainer 1 1  
 Non heavy drinkers 2.3 (1.87-2.89) 2.0 (1.63-2.57) < 0.001
 Infrequent heavy drinkers 2.5 (1.54-4.09) 2.2 (1.33-3.64) < 0.001
 Frequent heavy drinkers 1.9 (1.42-2.79) 1.6 (1.13-2.28) 0.002