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Table 2 Patient, Caregiver and illness factors and caregivers' Quality of Life

From: Schizophrenia in Malaysian families: A study on factors associated with quality of life of primary family caregivers

  Physical domain Psychological domain Social domain Environmental domain
  Mean ± SD t p a Mean ± SD t p a Mean ± SD t p a Mean ± SD t p a
Patient factor             
   Age             
≤ 45 years (77)
> 45 years (40)
65.90 ± 14.96
65.03 ± 13.22
-0.789 0.432 61.53 ± 16.23
60.93 ± 13.08
0.216 0.829 62.35 ± 17.46
63.58 ± 17.27
-0.362 0.718 63.49 ± 14.98
65.03 ± 14.76
-0.530 0.598
   Gender             
Male (49)
Female (68)
64.82 ± 15.63
67.93 ± 13.34
-1.128 0.262 61.02 ± 15.53
61.54 ± 15.63
-0.719 0.858 61.61 ± 14.80
63.60 ± 19.02
-0.611 0.542 63.53 ± 15.43
64.37 ± 14.54
-0.297 0.767
   Marital status             
Married (30)
Single/Divorced/Widowed (87)
68.50 ± 11.47
65.98 ± 15.24
0.950 0.346 64.37 ± 13.60
60.28 ± 16.07
1.354 0.181 59.33 ± 17.69
63.95 ± 17.15
-1.243 0.220 64.57 ± 14.31
63.83 ± 15.42
0.252 0.802
   Employment status             
Yes (23)
No (94)
69.43 ± 16.34
65.94 ± 13.85
0.947 0.351 68.96 ± 15.53
59.46 ± 15.02
2.646 0.012* 62.78 ± 15.50
62.77 ± 17.83
0.004 0.996 68.57 ± 15.47
62.90 ± 14.57
1.591 0.121
   Financial aid             
Yes (11)
No (106)
65.55 ± 15.08
66.74 ± 14.36
-0.250 0.807 61.09 ± 15.16
61.35 ± 15.63
-0.054 0.958 59.00 ± 14.12
63.16 ± 17.64
-0.906 0.381 63.82 ± 19.69
64.04 ± 14.39
-0.036 0.972
   Educational level             
Primary (33)
Secondary and above (84)
63.21 ± 14.64
67.96 ± 14.12
-1.596 0.116 55.58 ± 13.54
63.58 ± 15.74
-2.746 0.008* 57.55 ± 18.85
64.52 ± 16.37
-1.948 0.057 60.18 ± 16.35
65.52 ± 14.04
-1.652 0.105
Caregiver factor             
   Age             
≤ 45 years (34)
> 45 years (83)
68.41 ± 13.12
65.89 ± 14.86
0.907 0.368 62.03 ± 15.29
61.04 ± 15.70
0.317 0.753 61.91 ± 15.91
63.12 ± 17.96
-0.359 0.721 62.44 ± 13.22
64.65 ± 15.57
-0.769 0.444
   Gender             
Male (56)
Female (61)
69.46 ± 13.61
64.02 ± 14.65
2.085 0.039* 62.71 ± 13.91
60.05 ± 16.88
0.935 0.352 64.16 ± 16.20
61.49 ± 18.35
0.835 0.405 64.29 ± 13.77
63.77 ± 15.91
0.188 0.851
   Marital status             
Married (80)
Single/Divorced/Widowed (37)
67.63 ± 13.70
64.46 ± 15.68
1.055 0.295 62.61 ± 16.12
58.54 ± 13.94
1.397 0.166 64.00 ± 19.06
60.11 ± 12.67
1.306 0.194 65.51 ± 15.33
60.78 ± 13.41
1.693 0.094
   Educational level             
Primary (32)
Secondary and above (85)
59.41 ± 12.64
69.34 ± 14.10
-3.670 0.001* 55.00 ± 13.30
63.71 ± 15.70
-3.000 0.004* 55.66 ± 16.32
65.45 ± 17.03
-2.858 0.006* 56.25 ± 13.91
66.94 ± 14.21
-3.685 0.001*
   Employment status             
Yes (60)
No (57)
70.42 ± 14.10
62.63 ± 13.66
3.034 0.003* 64.18 ± 14.84
58.32 ± 15.78
2.069 0.041* 63.02 ± 16.03
62.51 ± 18.75
0.157 0.875 64.92 ± 14.22
63.07 ± 15.57
0.669 0.505
Medical problems             
Yes (33)
No (84)
57.24 ± 15.48
70.31 ± 12.13
-4.351 0.000* 53.73 ± 15.44
64.31 ± 14.59
-3.388 0.001* 58.88 ± 16.54
64.30 ± 17.49
-1.568 0.122 58.85 ± 15.30
66.05 ± 14.26
-2.333 0.023*
   Dependent members             
< 2 (12)
≥ 2 (105)
65.25 ± 14.52
66.78 ± 14.41
-0.346 0.728 62.00 ± 12.02
61.25 ± 15.92
0.198 0.846 68.83 ± 13.35
62.08 ± 17.65
1.601 0.129 64.08 ± 15.37
64.01 ± 14.88
0.016 0.988
Relationship with patients             
Parents (51)
Others (66)
62.45 ± 15.23
69.85 ± 12.87
-2.785 0.006* 58.22 ± 16.38
63.73 ± 14.49
-1.897 0.061 62.25 ± 18.63
63.17 ± 16.40
-0.276 0.783 62.24 ± 15.83
63.39 ± 14.03
-1.124 0.264
   r p b   r p b   r p b   r p b
SRRS   -0.1660 0.086   -0.205 0.027*   -0.146 0.115   -0.233 0.012*
Illness factor             
   No of hospitalisation             
< 4 (105)
≥ 4 (12)
66.98 ± 14.19
63.50 ± 16.13
0.717 0.486 61.96 ± 15.11
55.75 ± 18.52
1.120 0.283 64.06 ± 17.17
51.50 ± 15.07
2.694 0.017* 65.13 ± 14.44
54.25 ± 15.47
2.333 0.037*
   Duration of illness             
< 10 years (53)
≥ 10 years (64)
70.08 ± 12.67
63.77 ± 15.14
2.455 0.016* 64.91 ± 16.05
58.36 ± 14.53
2.291 0.024* 68.87 ± 15.65
57.72 ± 17.14
3.673 0.000* 67.47 ± 14.63
61.16 ± 14.54
2.331 0.022*
   Onset of illness             
< 45 years (102)
> 45 years (15)
65.73 ± 14.74
72.73 ± 9.84
-2.392 0.025* 60.96 ± 16.08
63.80 ± 11.09
-0.866 0.395 61.27 ± 16.87
72.93 ± 17.60
-2.409 0.027* 63.13 ± 14.62
70.07 ± 15.58
-1.623 0.122
   Attending day care             
Yes (16)
No (101)
57.94 ± 15.49
68.00 ± 13.76
-2.450 0.024* 53.19 ± 14.78
62.61 ± 15.31
-2.359 0.028* 54.69 ± 14.04
64.05 ± 17.52
-2.389 0.025* 52.50 ± 14.54
65.84 ± 14.14
-3.424 0.003*
   Types of medication             
Typical/mixed (37)
Atypical (80)
65.95 ± 16.22
66.94 ± 13.52
-0.324 0.747 59.14 ± 13.00
62.34 ± 16.54
-1.133 0.260 59.65 ± 15.62
64.21 ± 17.98
-1.400 0.166 61.73 ± 13.22
65.08 ± 15.51
-1.201 0.233
   r p b   r p b   r p b   r p b
BPRS   -0.229 0.013*   -0.168 0.070   -0.181 0.051   -0.200 0.031*
  1. SD = standard deviation
  2. p = p value
  3. r = Pearson correlation coefficient
  4. pa = from t test if not otherwise specified
  5. pb = from correlation test