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Table 1 Demographic, pasung and clinical features

From: Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

  Number/years Percent/range
Sex   
   Male 52 88.1%
   Female 7 11.9%
Age: mean (range) years 34.9 years 18-68 years
   Education   
   No formal education 3 5.1%
   Attended primary school 29 49.2%
   Attended junior high school 15 25.4%
   Attended senior high school 12 20.3%
Pasung initiated by family 51 86.4%
Violence/dangerousness given as main reason for pasung 47 79.7%
Duration of pasung: mean (range) 4.0 years <1-20 years
Duration of illness: mean (range) 11.3 years 1-38 years
Mode of referral to hospital   
   Brought to hospital by family 21 35.6%
   Referred by community mental health nurses inprimary health centre 17 28.8%
   Hospital Free Aceh Pasung team 20 33.9%
   Referred by police 1 1.7%
Diagnosis of schizophrenia   89.8%
   Schizophrenia, paranoid 53 89.8%
   Schizophrenia, undifferentiated 3 5.1%
   Schizoaffective Disorder 1 1.7%
   Bipolar Affective Disorder 1 1.7%
   Cannabis-induced Psychotic Disorder 1 1.7%
Previous psychiatric treatment 47 79.7%
   Payment of hospital treatment costs   
   Jaminan Kesehatan Aceh/Aceh Health Insurance 24 40.7%
   Jamkesmas (Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat/Community Health Security 34 57.6%
   "Poor identification letter" 1 1.7%