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Table 1 Collective Trauma-Theoretical model

From: Collective trauma in the Vanni- a qualitative inquiry into the mental health of the internally displaced due to the civil war in Sri Lanka

Disasters Causal Conditions X Ecological context Intervening Conditions Coping strategies Consequences
Man Made- War Displacements Social chaos, uprooting Insecurity Silence, Withdrawal, isolation, Benumbing Dependency, learned helplessness, passivity
Natural- Tsunami Separations Breakdown of social structures and institutions Terror Suspicion Distrust, mistrust, paranoia
  Massive destruction Unemployment, poverty Impunity, social injustice 'Fight, flight or freeze', Survival, escape, Suicide Despair, disbelief, amotivation, hopelessness
  Multiple deaths Starvation, hunger, malnutrition Breakdown of law and order    Loss of communality, decrease in social cohesion, tearing of social fabric, Loss of social capital
  Injuries Lack of medical care, diseases, epidemics Inequity, discrimination Cultural practices, rituals Adaptive changes in memory, reframing, meaning, realism
  Cultural & social bereavements 'Repressive ecology', violence, torture, abductions, detentions, disappearances, extrajudicial killings, Helplessness, hopelessness Adaptation, facing the challenge, problem solving Resilience, forbearance, new networks, friendship, relationships, hope
  Losses    Rumours, disinformation    Regeneration, development, progress