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Table 2 Distribution of war stress in the community

From: Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

Stress factors Community [44] (n = 98) OPDc [47] (n = 65)
Direct stress   
Death of friend/relation 50% 46%
Loss to property 46% 55%
Injury to friend/relation 39% 48%
Experience of bombing/shelling/gunfire 37% 29%
Witness violence 26% 36%
Detention 15% 26%
Injury to body 10% 9%
Assault 10% 23%
Torture 1% 8%
Indirect stress   
Economic difficulties 78% 85%
Displacementa 70% 69%
Lack of food 56% 68%
Unemployment 45% 55%
Ill healthb 14% 29%
  1. aBefore the 1995 mass displacement when the figure would have reached almost 100%
  2. bIll health due to war related injuries including amputations due to landmine blasts, epidemics like malaria, reduced resistance to infections (due to stress and malnutrition), septicemia etc. had debilitating mental effects.
  3. cOut Patient Department (OPD) at General Hospital, Jaffna